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Full text of "A companion to Mr. Bullock's London Museum and Pantherion : containing a brief description of upwards of fifteen thousand natural and foreign curiosities, antiquities, and productions of the fine arts, collected during seventeen years of arduous research, and at an expense of thirty thousand pounds : and now open for public inspection in the Egyptian Temple, just erected for its reception, in Piccadilly, London, opposite the end of Bond-Street"

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SMITHSONIAN 
INSTITUTION 

LIBRARIES 




Gift of 
Ellen B. Wells 

In Memory of 
JOHN WEST WELLS 



m* 



A COMPANION 



TO 



MR. BULLOCK'S 

LONDON MUSEUM 

AND 

PANTIIERION ; 

CONTAINING 

A BRIEF DESCRIPTION 

OF UPWAltUS Ul" FIFTKK.N IHOUSAND 

NATURAL AND FOREIGN CURIOSITIES, 
ANTIQUITIES, 

AND 

pto&uctions of t&e line arts, 

Collected during- Seventeen Years of arduous Research, and 
at an Expense of 

THIRTY THOUSAND POUNDS; 

And now open for Public Inspection in the 

Cjg-^ptian Cemple, 

JUST ERECTED FOR ITS RECEPTION, IN 

PICCADILLY, LONDON, 

OPPOSITE TBE END OF BON D- STREET ; 

By Wm. BULLOCK, 

ifELLOW OF THE LINNJEAN SOCIETY, AND HONORARY MEMBER OF 
THE DUBLIN SOCIETY. 



O Nature ! how in every charm supreme ! 

Whose vot'ries feast on raptures ever new, 

O ! for the voice and fire of Seraphim, 

To sing thy glories with devotion due ! Eeattie- 



THE TWELFTH EDITION. 



PRINTED FOR THE PROPRIETOR. 
1812. 



The full value given for rare and un- 
common Quadrupeds^ Birds, Fishes, Rep- 
tiles, Shells, Old Paintings, Carvings on 
Wood or Ivory, Stained Glass, ancient and 
foreign Arms and Armour, or any uncom- 
mon production of Art or Nature. 



Reyneilf Pnnt€r, Piccadilly f LonAon. 



ADDRESS. 



Mr. Bullock respectfully begs leave to solicit the atten- 
tion and patronage of the Nobility, Gentry, and the Public, 
to an Establishment for the advancefnent of the Science of 
Ncdural History, which in magnitude and expense, he pre- 
sumes, is unparalelled, as the work of an individual. 

The very flattering and general approbation which ho- 
noured the Exhibition of his Museum on its first opening in 
a temporary situation in London, was a convincing proof 
that his future efforts tor the extension and improvement of 
the Collection would be duly appreciated. His exertions to 
obtain articles of rarity and interest have, therefore, been 
unceasing. In most departments, the subjects have been 
doubled in number ; the specimens are choice, in the high- 
est possible preservation, and are arranged according to the 
Linnaean system. They consist of about Fifteen Thousand 
species of Quadrupeds, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects, 
Shells, Corals, &c. &c. collected during twenty years of 
unwearied application, and at an expense exceeding thirty 
thousand pounds. 

A2 



IV 

In adapting the Edifice which Mr. Bullock has just com- 
pleted for his present Collection, by displaying it advanta- 
geously for the Study of tlie Naturalist, the Instruction of 
the Curious, and the Amusement of those who are delighted 
in viewing the Beauties of Nature, or the Curiosities of Art, 
he has endea\'oured to i-ender it worthy of the British Me- 
tropolis, whilst he has also provided the means for enlarge- 
ment, as future additions shall accumulate. 

One department of the Museum (the Pantherion), com- 
pleted with much labour and great expense, is entirely 
novel, and presents a scene altogether grand and interesting. 
Various animals, as the lofty Giraffa, the Lion, the Ele- 
phant, the Rhinoceros, &c. are exhibited as ranging in their 
native wilds and forests ; Avhilst exact Models, both in figure 
and colour, of the rarest and most luxuriant Plants from 
every clime, give all the appearance of reality; the whole 
being assisted with a panoramic effect of distance and ap- 
propriate scenery, affording a beautiful illustration of the 
luxuriance of a torrid clime. 

The Museums of France have been enriched with the 
spoils of nearly the whole Continent, and the Gallery of the 
Louvre contains more treasure in Painting and Sculpture 
than perhaps will ever again be amassed in one Collection. 
But though her active and persevering Ruler, desirous of 
making his capital the centre of every attraction, has con- 
tributed to the Museum Naturale, every specimen of Na- 
tural Histoiy which in the present state of the Continent 
cpuld be procured, our unrivalled Navy, and the extension 
of our Colonies throughout the habitable world, present 
such advantages to this country, that the writer feels con- 
fident, that if his exertions are seconded by the Public as 



they have hitherto been, he will very shortly be enabled to 
make a Collection of Natural History far surpassing any 
thing of the kind at present in existence ; and he pledges 
himself to exert his utmost power in accomplishing this im- 
portant work. 

To the numerous Royal, Noble, and liberal Contributors 
to his Museum, by whose kindness his Collection has been 
enriched by so many valuable articles, whioh oould not have 
been procured by pecuiiiary means, Mr. Bullock returns 
his unfeigned thanks. 

When the information and delight which may be derived 
from this Exhibition, especially by the rising generation, 
are considered, the great sum expended in forming it, and 
the erection of the present large and commodious building 
for its reception, the Proprietor trusts that the terms will be 
approved of. 

Admission to each Exhibition, One Shilling. — Annual 
Ticket, not transferable, U. Is, — Subscriber for Life, 
10^. 10^. 



Museum, Piccadilly, 
March 2B, 1812. 



NAMES 



OF THE 

LADIES AND GENTLEMEN 

WHO BAFE PRESEJSTTEn CVIilOSTTIES TO TME 



M^^tmxi. 



HER MAJESTY. 

Her Royal Highness the 

PRINCESS CHARLOTTE OF WALES, 

Their Royal Highnesses the 

DUKE AND DUCHESS OF YORK. 



Adams, Mr.R ) ^harlotte^st. Fitz- 

J roy-square 

Aiton, Wm. Esq. F. L. S Keiv 

Allan, Thomas, Esq Edinburgh 

Anderson, Mr. F. L. S. 

Angus, Charles, Esq Liverpool 

Ashton, N. Esq. Liverpool 

Atherton, Edward, Esq Liverpool 

Banks, Lady- 
Banks, Sir Joseph London 

Barclay, Dr Edinburgh 

Barr, Captain Liverpool 

Barrow, Captain ,...,„.,. Liverpool 



vu 

Battersby, Miss Dublin 

Bedford, His Grace the Duke of 

Birchall, S. Esq Leeds 

Bissett, James, Esq Birmingham 

Blackburn, J. Esq M. P Hale 

Bligh, Mrs Durham Place 

Blundell, Henry, Esq Ince Hall 

Blundell, Bryan, Esq Liverpool 

Bolton, John, Esq Liverpool 

Bolton, Mrs Liverpool 

Bootle, W. Esq. M. P Latham House 

Bowdon, Joshua, Esq Liverpool 

Boscawen, Hon. Mrs St. James's Palace 

Brettargh, Mr. J Trqford Hall 

Bright, , Esq Bristol 

Broadbent, Mr Hull 

Brogden, H. Esq. F. L. S. .,,.... Oapham 

Bruce, Miss Demerara 

Buckingham, Marquis of 

Bullock, J Surinam 

Burns, A. Esq Glasgow 

Cavan, Earl of 

Caldwell, Charles, Esq Liverpool 

Campbell, Captain , Liverpool 

Chappel, Rev. Dr Leicester 

Chichester, Earl of 

Clarke, Captain .,,, Liverpool 

Clarke, Rev. Dr ^ London 

Coltman, Dr Liverpool 

Cowdroy, William, Esq. ..r Manchester 

Cox, Lady Hippisley 

Cullum, Sir Thomas, Bart Bwy St. Edmunds 

Currie, Mrs Liverpool 

Dadford, Thomas, Esq , Wolverhampton 

Dalrymple, Lieut.-General 
Darnley, Earl of 



VllI 

Dartmouth, Countess of 

Davies, Gen Blackheath 

Dean and Chapter of Christchurch Oxford 

Dickson, William, Esq. Liverpool 

Directors of the Blue-coat School Liverpool 

Drake, J. Esq Ot, Berkhampstead 

Dublin, Royal Society of 
Dundas, Lord 
Durham, Bishop of 

Edwards, Rev. Mr Lynn 

Edwards, Mr. S. F. L. S Brompton 

Egerton, Hon. Miss Windsor Castle 

Ellis, Edward, Esq ., Strtnsal Hall, York 

Essex, Countess of 

Fawkes, Walter, Esq Farnley Hall 

Fisher, Lieut. R.N Liverpool 

Forbes, William, Esq Liverpool 

Ford, Mrs Vpper Brook-street 

Francillon, John, Esq. F. L. S... Norfolk- street 

Frazier, Mr. F. L. S Chelsea , 

Fryer, Dr Rastrick 

Gascoyne, Mrs. I Childwall Hall 

Geddes, J. Esq Glasgow 

Gordon, Col Chelsea 

Graham, Col Glasgoio 

Green (late) Mr Lichfield 

Gurney (late) B. Esq Norwich 

Haldane, Lieut.-Col ^.•.... Croydon 

Hardy, James, Esq , Glasgow 

Harrington, LadyL 

Harrison, A. Esq. F. L. S West?ninster 

Harper, William, Esq Liverpool 

Haycock, Mr Liverpool 

r Rookery, Woodford, 



Hanson, , Esq 

Henley, H. H. Esq. F. L. S 



Essex 
Sandringham Hall, 
Norfolk 



IX 

Holswilders, D. Esq Surinam 

,^ ^ , r MUls Park, Somer- 

^^^"^^•'C^' ••••1 setshire 

Horseley, J. W. Esq. 

Howell, Thomas, Esq Coventry 

Hoy, M. Esq. 

Humphries, Mr. G » London 

Hunter, Admiral 

T , T -I- r Briizoell House, 

Irby, J. Esq ^ Maidenhmd 

James, Mrs St. Lucia 

Jamieson, Dr London 

Jennings, C. Esq ;.. Chelsea 

Johnson, James, £. Esq Bristol 

Johnson, Robert, Esq Liverpool 

Johnson, Col Calcutta- 

Kemble, Rev. Mr Birmingham 

Knox, Mr Chichester 

Koster, J. T. Esq Liverpool 

Lane, Mrs 3, Fenchurch-street 

Laurence, Charles, Esq Liverpool 

Lambert, A. B. Esq. V.P.L.S... Grosvenor-street 
Leach, Mr. W. E. F. L. S. 

Leger, Hon. Col. St Dublin 

Lettsom, Dr. F. L. S. 

Leicester, Sir John, Bart Taller/ 

Liverpool, Earl and Countess of 

Loundes, Mr.... Liverpool 

M'Dougal, Dr Gla govj 

M'Nally, L. Esq Dublin 

M'Niel, Lieut. Gen Bath 

Madden, , Esq Dublin 

Mavve, Mrs Tavistoch- street 

Miller, Captain Hull 

Mitford, Miss 
Moira, Earl of 

Moor, Henry Glover> Esq Liverpool 

B 



Munro, Dr.,. Edinburgh 

Munro, Miss Edinburgh 

Neilson, William, Esq Livtrpool 

Niel, Patrick, Esq Edinburgh 

Nixon, Mr Coventry 

Nugent, Dr { ^X,!?f ' *""" 

Parke, W. Esq * Rickevich in Iceland 

Parry, Henry, Esq Liverpool 

Pasco, Captain, R. N. 

Phillips, Leigh, Esq. F.L.S Manchester 

Plaisted, Mr Chelsea 

Pollock, Mrs Dublin 

Polito, Mrs. S Exeter 'Change 

Powell, Captain Liverpool 

Preston, Robert Liverpool 

Price, Major Frogmore 

Puleston, Col. Emral Wrexham . 

Kay, Mr 22, Gower-street 

Raiiier, Captain, R. N. 

Read, Lady Curzon-street 

Roach, Captain Liverpool 

Ri . o 1 T\T r» f Denston Hall, Suf- 

obinson. Col. M. P \ f /k 

Roscoej William, Esq. F.L.S... Liverpool 

Salt, Jonathan, Esq. F. L. S Sheffield 

Sandbach, Mr Liverpool 

Sartorius, Mr.... Chelsea 

JSallsbury, Bishop of 

Scott, Corse, Esq Edinburgh 

Sharp, Thomas, Esq Coventry 

Sharp, Rev. Mr Coventry 

Shefiieldj Lord 

Sheridan, Thomas, Esq 

Smith, Dr. J. E. P. L. S Norwich 

Smith, William, Esq Dublin 

Smyth, Rev. John... Liverpool 



XI 

Somerscales, Mr Hull 

Sowerby, Mr. F.L. S Mead-pI. Lambeth 

Stainiforth (late) Thomas, Esq. Liverpool 

Stainiforth, Samuel, Esq Liverpool 

Stanley, Lord, M. P Knoivsky 

Stanley, Col. M. P London 

Stanhope, Spencer, Esq, M. P. 

Snow, Mr. Surgeon Highgate 

Steel, Mrs Angksea 

Stephenson, W. Esq Nonvich 

Stuart, Captain Edinburgh ' 

Symmons, , Esq. F.L. S... Paddington House 

Teignmouth, Lord London 

Thompson, Mr. Artist 
Thorpe, J. Esq. 

Townsend, Rev. J Bath 

Trigge, Lady Saville'rotv 

TrafFord, John, Esq Trafford House 

Turmeau, John, Esq Liverpool 

Turner, William, Esq Llangollen 

Unit, Mr Birmingham 

Vandes, Le Count De London 

Vaughan, Rev. Ker, F. L. S Devonshire 

Walker, Peter, Esq. F. L. S... Edinburgh 

Wallis, Mr Hull 

Wallis, George Hull 

Ward, R. Esq Shtffitld 

Warre,J.Esq ( George-street , Han^ 

* ^ \ over-square 

Weston, Rev. Mr. 

Wilkinson, J. Esq Bath 

Wilson, Mr Glasgow 

Wilson, Mr College, Edinburgh 

Wilson, Lady Charlton 

Wilson, Sir Thomas South End 

B2 



Xll 

Wright, Dr. Peter Glasgoia 

Wright, R. Esq. F. L. S Lichjidd 

Yoik, Dean of 

Young, Dr. F. L. S Sheffield 



A 

COMPANION 

TO THE 

3^anti;criom 



NATURAL HISTORY. 



OUADRUPEDS. 

These are thy glorious works, Parent of Good. 

»»*»"*♦♦«♦**»*» 

Thou sjtt'st ahove those heavens 

To us iuvisibh\ or ilimly seen 

In these thy lowest works ; yet these ileelare 

Thy i^oodness hcNDud thought, and power divine. 

Milton. 



The Pantherion is an exhibition of Natural His- 
tory, on a plan entiiely novtl, intended to display 
the whole of the known Quadiupeds, in a manner that 



will convey a more perfect idea of their haunts and 
mode of life than has hitherto been done, keeping 
them at the same time in their classic arrangement, 
and preserving them from the injury of dust and air: 
it occupies an extensive apartment, nearly forty feet 
high, erected for the purpose. The visitor is intro- 
duced through a basaltic cavern (of the same kind as 
the Giants Causeway, or FingalPs Cave, in the Isle 
of Stafla) into an Indian hut, situated in a Tropical 
Forest, in which are displayed most of the Quadru- 
peds described by naturalists, with correct models 
from nature, or the best authorities, of the trees and 
other vegetable productions of the torrid climes, re- 
markable for the richness or beauty of their fruit, or 
the singularity of their foliage ; the whole assisted 
by an appropriate panoramic eflect of distance, which 
makes the illusion produced so strong, that the sur- 
prised visitor hnds himself suddenly transported from 
a crowded metropolis to the depth of an Indian forest, 
every part of which is occupied by its various savage 
inhabitants. 

The Linnrean arrangement of Quadrupeds com- 
mences at the first -opening on the left-hand of the 
entrance, where, dispersed on rocks and the branches 
of a large Orange-tree, are about sixty species of the 
genus Simia ; consisting of Apes, Baboons, and 
Monkeys. It is didicult to determine the species of 
many of them, and others are not yet described by 
any Naturalist; those known are numbered, and will 
be found as follows ; 



MONKEYS. 



1. The Barbary Ape, or 3Iagoe (Sitnia Inuus) 
Is a morose, ill-natured animal, but by means of 
severity may, in a state of captivity, be made to 
perform a number of actions which surprise us, by 
their near approach to those of man. 

2. The Pig-tailed Baboon (Simia Nemestrina). 

Is a native of Sumatra, and is very familiar and 
gentle in its behaviour towards strangers, but appears 
melancholy in a state of captivity. 

3. Variegated, Tufted, or Ursine Baboon (Simia 
Mormon). 

This Baboon is very numerous about the Cape of 
Good Hope, and is one of the largest of this tribe of 
animals, measuring when full grown, nearly five 
I'eet in height. It is very strong, fierce, and libidi- 
nous, yet at the same time is capable of attachment 
and gratitude. One that was sent to me in the 
year 1803, had two deep wounds in his loins, 
owing to the pressure of a heavy chain by which 
be was confined ; on appearing anxious to ex- 
amine the wounds, it readily presented the lacerated 
part to inspection, and after one side was dressed 
with a very sharp mixture (though at the same, 
time it was agonized with pain) it opened the 
other wound for the same application, which it con- 
tinued to do until such time as the excoriated places 



were healed. It remained at the Museum some time 
afterwards, and although mischievous to the family, 
yet, on the least motion of my hand, or on my ut- 
tering an angry word, it was all attention and submis- 
sion. These Baboons in their native country do con- 
siderable damage to the gardens and plantations, 
carrying on their depredations in large troops, with 
such boldness and resolution, as excite astonish- 
ment. 

4. Ribbed-nose Baboon (Simia Maimon). 

Is about two feet from nose to tail, an active and 
sprightly animal, greatly resembling the above Ba- 
boon, but not so large, nor the colours so bright, and 
is playful, but not so malignant. 

The French naturalists have made this the young 
of the former, and from the change I have observed 
in those of different ages, I have no doubt of their 
being right. 

5 and 6. Lion-tailed Baboon, male and female (S, 
Silenus). 

These are very remarkable and highly extraordi- 
nary animals ; they are natives of Ceylon and other 
parts of India, and are, in their native state, wild, 
ferocious, and mischievous: the female lived many 
years in the menagerie of her Royal Highness the 
Duchess of York, who presented it to the Museum. 

7. Wood Baboon (S. Silvatica). 

An active, roving species, inhabiting the woods of 
Africa. 

8. Crested Baboon (S. Cristata). A native of 
India. 

9. Dog-faced Baboon (vSimia Haraadryas). 

A very large and tierce species, remarkable for the 



long grey hair with which it is covered ; is rarely 
brought to Europe ; is a native of the hottest part 
of Africa, where it is said to be found in vast troops, 
and to be very fierce and dangerous. 

This was brought from Arabia by Lord Valentia, 

10. Green Monkey (SimezSobsesi). 

A most gentle, playful creature, inhabiting several 
parts of Africa and India ; in its native regions it is 
said to be of a beautiful green colour, which fades to 
an olive grey soon after its arrival in this country. 

11. The Mustache (S. Cephus). Inhabits Guinea. 

12. White eyelid Monkey (S.^thiops). 

A native of Madagascar, gentle and diverting in 
its manners. 

13. The Chinese Monkey (Simia Sinica). 

14. White-nosed Monkey (Simia Petaurista). 

A native of Guinea, only thirteen inches high ; tail 
twenty inches long. An entertaining, gentle animal, 
shewing great attachment to the person who feeds it, 

J 5. The Negro-Monkey (Simia Maura). From 
Africa. 

16. Palatine Monkey (Simia Rolaway). 

This beautiful and gentle animal was brought from 
the Slave Coast in Africa ; its colour appeared to have 
changed much on its being confined, as the rich bay 
on the inside of the limbs was turned to a yellowish 
white ; its singular white beard gave it, whilst living, 
an air of great gravity, and its manners were quite 
inoffensive and mild. It died in the collection ot Mr. 
Polito, in the winter of 1808, owing probably to the 
severity of the weather. 

C 



17. Long-nosed Monkey (Simia Nasuta). 

18, 19, and 20. Three specimens of the Long' 
armed. Four -fingered , or Spider 3Ionkey (Simia Pa- 
niscus). 

One of these was received from South Ameri- 
ca in the summer of 1808, and lived for some 
time. In general, its appearance was extremely 
disgusting ; the arms were of an extraordinary- 
length, and the hands destitute of all appear- 
ance of thumbs; the tail is also of a great length, 
is bare for a considerable way near the tip, 
by means thereof it could reach any thing as well as 
with its hands. The whole animal, except the face, 
hands, and end of the tail, is covered with long 
coarse black hair, thinly disposed, except on the 
head, where it grew forward in the same manner 
as the haman species, giving to its mulatto-coloured 
face the appearance of a miserably wretched old 
man. Its disposition was extremely gentle and in- 
offensive, but so timid, as never to be familiar ; if 
held by the hands, it uttered a doleful cry, and fre- 
quently tears ran from its eyes, but never shewed 
the least inclination to bite. 

21. A white variety of the above. 

22. Roi/al Monkey (Simia Seniculus). 

Is a native of Cayenne, and is sometimes called 
the Preacher, or Hoivler, from their custom of as- 
sembling together, and making a most horrible noise 
in the woods. 

23 and 24. Fearful, or Ring-tailed Monkey (Simia 
Trepida). 

Native of Guinea ; of a lively disposition : is fre- 
quently kept in France. 



25 and 26. Varieties of the above. 

27 and 28. Male and female of the Squirrel 
Monkey (Simia Sciurea). 

This is one of the smallest and most beautiful of 
the Monkey tribe; is a native of South America^ 
and with difficulty kept alive in this country. 

29. Fox-tailed Monkey (Simia Pithecia). 

The hair of this singular animal is very long, and 
of a dark brown, or nearly black colour ; it is about 
the size of a large cat ; is a native of Guinea, and is 
said to be very fierce in its disposition. 

30. Several specimens of the Striated Monkey, or 
Sanglin (Simia Jacchus). 

This extraordinary little animal, no larger than a 
Squirrel, is an inhabitant of Brazil. In a native 
state these Monkies are supposed to feed upon fruits, 
but in a state of confinement they will occasionally 
feed on insects, snails, &c. Edwards, in his Glean- 
ings, makes mention of a pair of these animal?, which 
belonged to a London merchant, who resided at 
Lisbon; they had young at that place. These, at 
their birth, were exceedingly ugly, having no fur : 
they would frequently cling fast to the teats of the 
dam ; and when they grew a little, used to hang 
upon her back and shoulders. When she was 
tired, she would rub them ofL against the wall, or 
whatever else was near, as the only mode of ridding 
herself of them. On being forced from the female, 
the male immediately took them to him, and sutierea 
them to hang round him, to ease her of the burden. 

Her Royal Highness the Duchess of York has 
lately succeeded very well in breedmg these diminu* 
tive and delicate little animals. 



C2 



8 

31 ai\d 32. The Great-eared Monkey (Simia Mi- 
das). 

About the size of a Squirrel ; the colour black, 
except the hands and feet, which are orange. It is 
a native of Cayenne and Brazil. 

Hed Monkeys (Simia Rubra), male and female. 
Natives of Senegal and the hottest parts of Africa; 
a harmless and playful species. 



MAUCAUCOS (LEMUR). 

These are placed on the branch of a tree, near the 
third window. They are generally mild and gentle 
in their disposition, and inhabit the warmer parts of 
India. 

1. Slow Lemur, or Tailless Maucauco (Lemur Tar- 
diradus). 

About half the size of a cat, and is a native of the 
coast of Coromaudel. According to the pleasing 
description of the late learned Sir Wm. Jones, in the 
4th volume of Asiatic Researches, its manners are 
gentle and interesting ; it sleeps during the day, and 
feeds on fruits. 

2. Woolly Lemur, ov Mongoz (Lemur Mongoz). 
About the size of a cat, is a native of Madagascar, 

feeds on fruits, and in a state of captivity is sportive 
and harmless. 

.S. The Potto (Lemur Potto). 
This is an inhabitant of Guinea. 

4. Ring-tailed Lemur, or Maucauco (Lemur Catta). 

This is a very beautiful, gentle, harmless, and en- 
tertaining animal, frequently kept tame by ladies ; it 
is a native of the warmer parts of India, and feeds on 
fi'uit, which it eats sitting upright, and holding in its 
fore paws. The young ones were lately bred in thil 
country. 

5. Little Maucauco (Lemur Minutus). 

Is about the size of a mouse ', is an elegant Uttl« 



10 

animal, and bears a stronc: resemblance to the Mon- 
key tribe ; is the only specimen known in England. 

Dr. Shaw has figured a small Lemur m the 14th 
volume of the Naturalists Aiiscellany, but it is much 
larger, and destitute of the mane, so conspicuous in 
this species. 



BATS, (VESPERTILIO). 

These are placed in front of the Lion*s Den, op- 
posite the entrance. 

Madagascar, or Vampyre Bat (Vespertilio Vam» 
pyrus). 

This uncommon animal is called, by BufFon, the 
Rousette ; it measures upwards of 3 feet from the tip 
of one wing to the other ; the body is nearly as large 
as that of a cat, but it resembles a rat in the shape of 
the head; it is covered with short hair of a reddish 
brown colour; the top of each wing is armed with a 
strong claw, with which it lasiens itself to tiie branches 
of trees; it has likewise five sharp claws on each 
foot. Some of those animals grew to an enormous 
size ; and in the isUmds of the East Indies they ai-e 
sometimes seen in such numbers, that they darken 
the air at noon -day : they are carniverous, and very 
ferocious. . In a scarcity of flesh and fish, they feed 



11 

on vegetables and fruits of every kind. This is the 
Bat to which Linnaeus applied the title of Vampyre, 
on the supposition of its being the species of which 
go many extraordinary accounts have been given re- 
lative to its power of sucking the blood of men and 
cattle. 

In the autumn of 1810 I had, for a short time, a 
living one of a large size, from the East Indies, and 
contrary to what has been asserted of it by writers, 
found it a most inoftensive, harmless, entertaining 
creature ; it refused animal food, but fed plentifully 
on succulent fruits, preferring figs and pears, and 
licked the hand that presented them, seeming de- 
lighted v.'ith the caresses of the persons who fed it, 
playing with them in the manner of a young kitten ; 
it was fond of white wine, of which it took near half 
a glass at a time, lapping it like a cat. This had a 
very evident etfect on its spirits, as it then became 
extremely frolicsome and diverting, but never once 
attempted to bite. It slept suspended, with its head 
downwards, wrapping its satin-like wings round its 
body in the form of a mantle. I several times per- 
mitted it to enclose the end of my little finger in its 
mouth, for the purpose of observing if it would 
attempt to draw blood, but not the slightest indica- 
tion of such intention appeared, and I have strong 
reason to doubt the stories related so greatly to its 
disadvantage. 

Madagascar Bat, with the wings closed. 

The Long-eared Bat (Vespertilio Auritus). 

This is one of the most common English Bats, and 
may be frequently seen, during the summer even- 
ings, pursuing the various insects on which it feeds. 

In the same Case is a White variety of this animal. 



in which the delicate and admirable structure of the 
wings ii. finely shewn. 

The Great Bat (Vespertilio Noctula). The largest 
of the British species. 

The Horseshoe Bat (Vespertilio Ferrum Equinum) 
with its young ; taken in the Abbey Church, Bristol. 



SLOTH (BRADYPUS TRYDAC lYLUS). 



Three of these are on the stem of the American 
Aloe, near the head of the Rhinoceros. 

These are of all quadrupeds the most slolhfiil and 
indolent. " Nature (says the Count de Builon) seems 
*' to have created this ill-constructed mass of defor- 
** mity for nothing but misery.^' They have neither 
canine nor incissive teeth ; their eyes are dull and 
heavy, their mouths wide and thick; their far re- 
sembles dried grass ; their thighs are almost disjointed 
from their haunches ; their legs are very short and 
badly shaped ; they have no soles to their feet, nor 
toes separately moveable ; but only two or three 
claws, excessively long, crooked downwards and 
backwards. They can neither seize on prey, nor 
feed on flesh, and are therefore reduced to live on 
leaves and wild fruits. They take up a long time in 
crawling to a tree, and are still longer in climbing 




/ Jt::/^a>?^7//^i 



2 M?<e€ //-V// . M-///. 

Ihih.fy' TKBullock J^cncUn MuuumJ^L'ra.ai/i Jfin' j.jMvi. 



13 

to its branches. When at last one of them has ac- 
complished its end, it fastens itself to a tree, crawls 
from branch to brancii, and by degrees strips the 
whole of its foliage ; in this manner it remains 
several weeks without moistening its food ; and when 
it has consumed its store, and the tree is left quite 
naked, unable to descend, it continues on till hunger 
presses, which becoming more powerful than the 
fear of danger, or even death itself, it drops to the 
ground, without being capable of exerting any effort 
to break the violence of the fall. Its manners are 
sluggish to an excessive degree ; its general appear- 
ance disgusting; its voice plaintive, piteous, and 
even horrible. It can live a prodigious time without 
food : Kircher says forty days. It has vast strength 
in the paws, and fastens its claws into any thing with 
such force, that they cannot be disengaged : hence, 
when beasts of prey attack this animal, it adheres to 
them so strongly, that they are both found dead in 
each other's grasp* 



ANT-EATERS (MYRMECOPHAGA). 

These are placed next the Monkeys, near the 
model of one of the Turrets, or Nests of the Termi- 
tus or White Ants of Africa, which are often of the 
height of ten feet, appearing at a distance like the 
villages of the natives. 



u 

The Ant-eaters are destitute of teeth, but have 
protruding snouts, through which they draw the in- 
sects which form their food on their long clammy 



The Gre(U Ant-eater, or Tamanoir (IMyrmecophaga 
Jubata). 

This is the largest of the Ant-eaters, as well as 
the most singular in its appearance ; it is upwards of 
six feet in length, and has a very slender snout, out of 
which it protrudes its worm-like tongue into the 
nests of ants, on which it feeds. It is a native of 
South America, from whence one was some years 
since brought alive to Spain : it was fed on raw 
meat, cut small, of which it ate four or five pounds 
a day. 

The Cape Ant-eater (Myrmecophaga Capensis). 

Though the above is called the largest of this re- 
markable family, yet this may be considered the 
heaviest, as its weight sometimes exceeds lOOtbs. 
It burrows in the ground and sleeps by day. 

Little Ant-eater (Myrmecophaga Didactyla). 

Inhabits Guinea, and the hottest parts of South 
America. They climb trees in quest of a species of 
ant that builds its nest among the branches; they 
thrust out their clammy tongues into the nest, and 
draw them into their mouths covered with insects. 
Their tail is of great use to them in climbing, as they 
twist it round the branches to prevent falling. 

Middle Ant-eater (Myrmecophaga Tetradactyla). 

Inhabits South America, goes out in the night, and 
sleeps during the day ; when irritated, it seizes on a 
stick or other object with its fore claws, and fights 
sitting on its hind legs; the extremity of the tail is 



15 

naked and prehensile, by means of which it is ena- 
bled to suspend itself to the branches of trees. 

Porcupine Ant-eater (Myrraecophaga Aculeata, 
Shaw's Zoology, vol. 1, page 175). 

This is one of those curious animals which have 
been lately discovered in New Holland ; it differs 
from all ihe other Ant-eaters in having the body 
covered with sharp spines, resembling porcupines* 
quills, only they are shorter and thicker in propor- 
tion. It has a remarkably long, tubular snout, with 
a very small mouth, out of which it shoots its 
tongue, in the same manner as the others. It 
burrows under the ground with the greatest ease, 
nature having furnished it with amazing strength in 
its legs and feet. 

Another Porcupine Ant-eater, varies from the above 
in the lightness of the colour of the spines, and their 
being shorter, and more covered with stiff whitish 
hair; probably of a different sex, or a younger 
animal. 



D2 



te 



The Manis, or Scaly Ant-eaters, are placed with the' 
5t, to which they have a strong aftlnity, except the 

covering of the body, which in these are strong, 

horn-hke scales. 



last 



Pangolin, or Short-tailed Manis (Manis Pentadac- 
tyla). 

A remarkably^ fine specimen of this extraordinary 
and highly curious animal, measuring five feet in 
length ; it is a native of Africa and India, and its 
principal food is the white ant, against the united at- 
tacks of which Nature has given its impenetrable 
coat of armour. It was brought to this country by- 
Mr. Samwell, Surgeon, who was with Captain Cook 
during his voyages of discovery. 

Long-tailed Manis (Manis Tetradactyla). 

This rare animal is a native of India and Africa. 
It is perfectly gentle and harmless, though it has the 
most formidable apj^earance, being entirely covered 
with large sharp scales, which it erects when irritated. 
Buffon says *' The most cruel and voracious of beasts, 
*' such as the Tiger and the Panther, make but use- 
" less efforts to devour these armed animals; they 
*' tread upon and roll them, but when they attempt 
" to seize them, are grievously wounded ; they 
•' can neither terrify them by their violence, nor 
** crush them by their weight/* 

Another specimen of this singular animal, near 
it, differs in having double the number of scales, 
which are only half the size. 

Near the above, are two specimens of the nine- 
banded Arniadillo, with a young one, and one of the 
eighi-banded. 

It receives the name of Armadillo, or Hog ia 
Annour, from the Spaniards, and from the impenetra- 



s ^ 




17 

ble coat of mail with which it is furnished by nature 
for its defence. It is a native of South America, 
where there are several kinds ; but the principal 
difterence consists in the number of bands or folds, of 
which the armour that covers the body is composed. 
It is a harmless, inoffensive animal, feeds on roots, 
herbs, and other vegetables, grows very fat, and is 
much esteemed for the delicacy of its flesh. The 
Indians hunt it with small dogs, trained for the pur- 
pose : when it is surprised, it runs to its hole, or at- 
tempts to make a new one, which it does with great 
expedition, having strong claws on the fore feet, with 
which it adheres so firmly to the ground, that if it 
should be caught by the tail, whilst making its way 
into the earth, its resistance is so great that it will 
sometimes leave its tail in the hands of its pursuers ; 
to avoid this the hunter has recourse to artifice, and 
by tickling it with a stick, it gives up its hold, and 
suffers itself to be taken alive. If no other means 
of escape be left, it rolls itself up within its covering, 
by drawing in the head and legs, and bringing the 
tail round them, as a band to connect them more 
forcibly together ; in this situation it sometimes 
escapes by rolling itself over the edge of a precipice, 
and generally falls to the bottom unhurt. 

Next to these is the huge Rhinoceros (Rhinoceros 
Unicornis) which may be considered as one of the 
most powerful of animals; in strength, indeed, he 
is inferior to none, and his bulk (says Bontius) 
equals the Elephant, but is lower only on account 
of the shortness of his legs. The length of the 
Rhinoceros, from head to tail, is usually twelve 
feet ; and the circumference of the body nearly 
equals that length : its nose is armed with so hard 
and formidable a horn, that the Tiger will rather 



18 

attack the Elephant, whose proboscis he can lay 
hold of, than the Rhinoceros, which he cannot face 
without danger of having his bowels torn out by the 
defensive weapon of his adversary. The body and 
limbs of the Rhinoceros are covered with a skin so 
hard and impenetrable, that he fears neither the claws 
of the Tiger, nor the trunk of the Elephant. It is 
said to turn the edge of a scymetar, and to resist 
even the force of a musket-ball. The upper lip of 
the Rhinoceros is capable of great extension, and 
is so pliable, that the animal can move it from side 
to side, twist it round a stick, collect its food, or seize 
with it any thing it would carry to its mouth. The 
Rhinoceros, without being ferocious, or carniverous, 
is totally untractable and rude: it seems at times to 
be subject to paroxysms of fury. The one which 
the King of Portugal sent to the Pope, in the year 
1513, destroyed the vessel which transported it. 
Like the hog, the Rhinoceros wallows in the mire, is 
a solitary animal, and delights to rove near the banks 
of rivers. It is found in Bengal, Siam, China, and 
other countries of the East, where it feeds on the 
grossest herbs, preferring thistles and shrubs to the 
finest of pasturage. The female produces but one at 
a time, which during the first month exceeds not the 
size of a large dog : at the age of two years, tlu^ 
horn is not more than an inch long ; at six years old, 
it is ten inches long, and grows to the length of 
three feet. — Frorii the peculiar construction of his 
eyes, the Rhinoceros can only see what is imme- 
diately before him. When he pursues any object, 
he proceeds always in a direct line, overturning any 
thing in his way. His sense of smelling is so acute., 
that his pursuers are obliged to avoid being to wind- 
ward of him : they follow him at a distance, and 
watch till he lies down to sleep ; they then approach 



19 

'and discharge their muskets into the lower part of 
his belly. 

A fine specimen of the Elephant (Elephas Maxi- 
mus). This stupendous animal lived for many 
years in Exeter 'Change, and was remarkable for 
its docility and obedience to its keeper. For a fur- 
ther description of this identical animal, see ** Won- 
ders of Animated Nature," just published, p. 111. 



BEASTS OF PREY (FER^.).. 



Close to the Elephant commence those animals de- 
nomiucited by Linnaeus, Ferae, which contain all 
the beasts of prey. 

1. In a low den is the TFo//' (Canis Lupus) from 
Hudson's Bay ; it is of an unusual size, and the 
colour is lighter than those of Europe. 

2. The Striped Hycena (Canis Hysena). 

A young animal from the Cape of Good Hope, 
little more than half its full size. 

3. The Jr/c^^«/ (Canis Aureus). 

These inhabit the warm parts of Asia and Bar- 
bary, prowling by night, sometimes in flocks of two 



20 

hundred together, hunting in concert: at the cry of 
one, all within hearing howl prodigiously, and urge 
other beasts to hunt the stag, whilst the Lion or 
Tiger, lying in wait, seize the prey, and first satisfy- 
ing themselves, leave the remainder to the Jackals; 
from whence originates the tale of their being the 
Lion's provider. 

4. The Barbary Jackal (Canis Barbarus). 

5. Cape Jackal (Canis Mesomelas). 

6. Black Fox (Canis Lycaon). 

This inhabits the colder parts of America, and is 
said to be the most crafty of its tribe ; its skin is also 
of the greatest value, as fur. 

7. The Aixtic Fox (Canis Lagopus), in its sum- 
mer dress. 

8. and 9. Ditto in its winter cloathing. 

These inhabit the most northern parts of America ; 
frequent the sea shore, and occasionally feed on shell 
fish. 



21 



FELINE TRIBE. 



Ill dens, and on the large rocks facing the entrance, 
are disposed the whole of the Feline tribe, containing 
the most cruel and rapacious of animals. 

In a cavern, is the Lion (Felis Leo), and near its 
feet, sleeping on the ground, a Cub about four 
months old. 

2. The Panther (Felis Pardus). 

Is seen issuing from a den : it is an untame- 
able animal, and next in size to the tiger. It 
inhabits Africa, Barbary, the remotest parts of 
Guinea, and the interior of South America ; is ex- 
tremely fierce, and attacks every living creature 
without distinction, but happily prefers the flesh of 
brutes to that of mankind. The ancients were well 
acquainted with these animals. The Romans drew 
prodigious numbers from Africa, for their public 
shows. Scarus exhibited 150 of them at one time ; 
Pompey4I0; and Augustus 420. They probably 
thinned the Coast of Mauritania of these animals ; 
but they still swarm in the southern parts of Guinea. 
The skin of the Panther was presented by Mr. Po- 
lito. 

3. The Jaguar (Felis Onca). 

Is a most fierce and destructive animal, in its man- 
ner resembling the Tiger. It is an inhabitant of 
3outh America, 

4. Walking on the top of the rock, above the 
Lion's den, is i\i% Hunting Leopard (Felis Jubata). 

E 



2f 

This animal was received from Senegal, and was 
perfectly tame, having never been subject to con- 
finement. In India they are trained for the taking of 
game : three living ones were shewn a few years 
since in the Tower, that were part of a pack belong- 
ing to the late Tippoo Sultan. This animal has not 
retracti!e or sheathed claws, like the rest of the feline 
tribe. 

5. The Black Leopard (Felis Discolor). 

This was of a most untameable and ferocious tem- 
per, which it constantly exhibited, without distin- 
guishing the person that fed it from others. It is 
said to be an inhabitant of Java. 

6. The Puma, or American Lion (Felis Concolor)^ 
with its young. 

This is the largest of the American beasts of prey, 
sometimes measuring five feet from the nose to the 
insertion of the tail. It is an animal of great 
strength and fierceness, sometimes climbing trees, 
and springing at whatever may pass beneath. The 
young were produced at Exeter-'Change, and are 
remarkable for the spots with which they are covered 
whilst in a state of infancy. 

7. Margai/, or Tiger Cat (Felis Tigrina). 

This diminutive species has all the evil propensities 
and appetites for rapine of the Tiger; it resides prin- 
cipally on trees, preying on birds. It is a native of 
South America. 

8. The Serval (Felis Serval). 

Was received from Senegal ; it likewise inhabits 
India and Thibet, residing mostly on trees, and 
avoiding man, unless when enraged. 

9. Cinerous Cat. This appears to have been de» 



^3 

scribed only by Mr. Pennant. It was a native of 
Senegal, and its disposition was not so fierce as the 
generality of its kind. 

10. The Persian Lynx (Felis Caracal). 

Was received from Senegal. It is sometimes tamed 
and used in the chace of the smaller Quadrupeds, 
also Herons, Cranes, Pelicans, &c. - 

11. American Lynx (Felis Lynx). 



At the end of the rocks on which the above are 
placed, follow the 

VIVERRA, OR WEASEL GENUS. 

1. The Ichneumon (Viverra Ichneumon). 

In India, but still more in Egypt, the Ichneumon 
has always been considered as one of the most useful 
and estimable of animals; since it is an inveterate 
enemy to serpents, rats, and other noxious creatures 
which infest those regions. In India it attac ks with 
courage that most dreadful reptile, the Cobra de Ca» 
pello, or Hooded Snake. It also diligently seeks for 
the eggs of crocodiles ; for which reason, as well as 
for its general usefulness in destroying all manner of 
troublesome reptiles, it was held in such a high degree 
of veneration by the ancient Egyptians, as to be 

E2 



24 

regarded as a minor deitj^, or one of those benevolent 
beings proceeding from the Parent of the universe,, 
For the purposes above specified, it is still domestica- 
ted by the Indians and Egyptians in the same manner 
as the cat in Europe ; and it has also the merit of 
being easily tamed, and performing with alacrity all 
the offices of that creature. Like many others of this 
tribe, it is a most dangerous enemy to several animals 
larger than itself, over which it gains a victory and 
sucks their blood. In a wild state it frequents rivers 
in quest of prey, where it is reported to swim and 
dive like an Otter, and continues a length of time 
under water. As it is a native of warm climates, 
it of course is greatly injured by a removal to the 
cold regions of Europe, to the variations of which it 
generally falls a victim. 

2, and 3. The Coati Mondi, or Brasilian Weasel 
(Viverra Nasua). 

A native of South America. They majr easily be 
domesticated. One that I kept a considerable time 
was so familiar, that it was with difficulty it could be 
kept from ascending to my shoulders, and when I 
was present would at any time attack any strange 
dog that approached his apartment. It afterwards 
conceived a strict friendship, which continued till 
death, for a long-armed Monkey (Simia Paniscus) : 
they were inseparable companions; but I suspect the 
object of attraction was the warmth they received 
from each other in keeping close together. 

4. Striated Weasel (Viverra Putorius). 

It is a native of North America, and remarkable 
for the intolerable stench which it emits when irrita- 
ted, which is so powerful as to prevent either men 
or dogs from pursuing it : even the clothes of persons 



25 

who are near it are obliged t© be buried in the ground 
for some time before they can be purified. 

5. The Skunk (Viverra Mephites). 

This, like the last, defends itself by emitting so in- 
tolerable an odour, as to overpower whatever pursues 
it ; this sometimes happens in the houses of the 
settlers in North America, when their whole stock of 
provisions are rendered useless. 

d. The Civet (Viverra Civetta). 

This Cat is sometimes erroneously called the Musk 
Cat. It is a native of the hottest climates of Africa 
and Asia; yet it is capable of living in temperate or 
even in cold countries, if it be carefully defended 
against the injuries of air, and provided with delicate 
and succulent food. The Civet Cat is a wild, fierce 
animal, and feeds on its prey in the same manner as 
the fox. In Holland they are frequently reared for 
the sake of their perfume, which greatly resembles 
musk. This is produced in a pouch under the tail ; 
and those that keep them for this purpose put them 
into a long narrow box, in which they cannot turn ; 
this box is opened behind twice or thrice a week by 
the person who collects the perfume, who drags the 
animal backwards by the tail, and keeps it in that 
situation by placing a bar before it, while with a 
small spoon he scrapes the odoriferous substance from, 
the pouch in which it is produced. 

7, Three-striped Weasel (Viverra Hermaphrodita). 
It is a native ofBarbary, and very destructive to 

poultry. 

8. The Genet (Viverra Genetta). 

This beautiful little animal was kept for some time 
alive, and was suffered to play at liberty in the 



!26 

house : in some parts of the East it is domesti- 
cated, and is very useful in clearing the houses of 
Vermin. 

9. and 1 0. Spotted Fitchets of New Holland (Vi- 
verra Maculata). 

1 1 . The Otter ( Mustek Lutra). 

Is pretty generally diffused over Europe, North 
America, and Asia as far as Persia ; it feeds princi- 
pally on fish, and is very destructive to our ponds 
and rivers ; it lives in holes under ground, the open- 
ings to which are beneath the surface of the water. 
The bite of the Otter is extremely severe, but they 
are capable of being tamed, and taught to fish for 
their owner, which they do with the greatest address, 
as they are capable of remaining a considerable 
time under water. 

12. The Pekan (Mustela Canadensis). 

13. The Martin (Mustela Foina\ 

Inhabits the woods of most parts of Europe, feed- 
ing on birds, and other smaller animals. 

14. The Pine Martin (Mustela Martis). 

Is occasionally found in the pine forests in the 
northern parts of our Island. 

15. Fisher Weasel (Mustela Nigra), 

16. The Stoat, or Ermine (Mustela Erminea). 

Is found principally in the wilds of Russia, and 
other cold countries. It is from the skin of this ani- 
mal that the valuable white fur is made. They are 
said to change their colour, being brown in summer 
•and white in winter* 



27 

On a tree near these is the Glutton (Ursus Gulo). 

A voracious animal, inhabiting the northern parts 
of Europe, Asia, and America: it preys on deer, 
hares, and the smaller quadrupeds, frequently con- 
cealing itself among the branches of trees, from 
whence, springing on the shoulders of whatever 
passes, it adheres firmly to them, till they drop from 
fatigue or loss of blood. Their skins are valuable as 
fur. 



28 



OPOSSUiMS (DIDELPHIS). 

Near the farthest corner from the entrance arc 
placed the Opossums (Didelphis). 

Till the discovery of New Holland, most of the 
then known animals of this genus were natives of 
America. Australasia has, howe\er, added more 
new species to this extraordinary family than were 
before known : they are most remarkable for the 
abdominal pouch with which the females are fur- 
nished, which can be opened or shut at pleasure, in 
which the young are concealed in time of danger. 

1. Virginian Opossum (Didelphis Opossum). In- 
habits the warmer parts of America, climbs trees, 
and springs from branch to branch by means of its 
strongly prehensile tail. 

2. The Mamiose (Didelphis Murina). 

3. New Holland Opossum (Didelphis Caudivolva). 
This has been brought alive to this country, and 

is a pleasing, cleanly animal. 

4. and 5, Kangaroo (Didelphis Gigantea). 

Of all the curious animals which the vast Island, 
or rather Continent of Australasia has presented 
to our view, the Kangaroo must be considered 
as one of the most extraordinary ; its size, gene- 
ral conformation, teeth, and other particulars, con- 
spiring to render it a most interesting object to 
every naturalist. The first discovery of this re- 
markable quadruped was in the year 1770, when 



29 

Capt. Cook was stationed on the Coast of New Hol- 
land. It is the only quadruped our colonists have 
yet met with in New South Wales that supplies 
them with animal food. There are two kinds ; the 
largest that has been shot weighed about 140tfcs, 
and measured from the point of the nose to the end 
of the tail 6 feet 1 inch ; the tail 2 feet 1 inch ; 
head 8 inches ; fore leg 1 foot ; hind legs 2 feet 8 
inches ; circumference of the fore part of the body 
near the leg 1 foot 1 inch ; and of the hind part 
3 feet. The smaller kinds seldom exceed OOtbs. 
This animal is furnished with a pouch similar to that 
of the Opossum, in which its young are nursed and 
sheltered. It feeds on grass and other vegetable 
substances. In their native state these animals are 
said to feed in herds of thirty or forty together ; and 
one is generally observed to be stationed as if 
apparently on the watch, at a distance from the rest. 
One of the most remarkable peculiarities of the 
Kangaroo is the extraordinary faculty which it pos- 
sesses of separating at pleasure, to a considerable 
distance, the two fore teeth in the lower jaw. The 
Kangaroo may be considered in some degree as 
naturalized in England, several having been kept 
for many years in the Royal domains at Richmond, 
which have during their residence there produced 
young, and promise to render this most elegant 
animal a permanent acquisition to our country. 

6. The Bush Kangaroo, Not described by any 
writer. 

7. and 8, Kangaroo Rats (Didelphis Tridactyla). 
This species, which from its colour and the general 

aspect of its upper parts, has obtained the title of the 

Kangaroo Rat j is about the size of a rabbit; the ge- 

F 



30 

neral shape of the animal resembles that of the Kan- 
garoo, but is far less elegant, the proportion of the 
parts less pleasing, and the hair, which is a dusky, 
cinerous brown, of a coarser nature. In its teeth it 
agrees with the great Kangaroo, except that it has 
eight instead of six front teeth in the upper jaw, the 
two middle ones being sharp-pointed : the fore teeth 
in the lower jaw are like those of the Kangaroo as to 
shape and position, but are smaller in proportion ; 
the grinders are three in number on each side both 
above and below, the foremost being fluted or chan- 
nelled with several longitudinal ribs; the two re- 
maining ones plain. The structure of the hind feet 
in this species resembles those of the Kangaroo, but 
the fore feet have only four toes. The female is 
furnished with an abdominal pouch for the reception 
of the young. Some of this species were imported in 
a living state from New Holland, and brought forth 
young. Its native name is Poto Roo, 

9. The Porculine Opossum (Didelphis Qbe^ula). 

10. Spotted Opossum (Didelphis Maculata). 

11. and 12. Flying Opossums (Didelphis Volans). 
These are natives of New Holland, and Dr. Shaw 

seems to speak of them as the most beautiful of 
quadrupeds. Their general appearance is that of a 
large Flying Squirrel, to which they are nearly 
allied. 

12. A White Variety of the above. 

13. Squirrel Opossum (Didelphis Sciurea). 

Is a beautiful animal, greatly resembling the for- 
mer, except in size. 

14. Zebra Oposswn (Didelphis Cynocephala). 
This animal, which is the only one known in any 



31 

collection, is a native of Van Diemen's Land, where 
it inhabits amoDg the caverns and rocks in the high 
and almost impenetrable glens of the mountainous 
parts of that country : it is the largest carniverous 
animal yet discovered in New Holland, measuring 
from the nose to the end of the tail five feet three 
inches ; it is said to be extremely voracious, which 
will scarcely be doubted, when it is known that the 
one described in the ninth volume of the Linnaean 
Transactions, p. 179, had in its stomach the partly 
digested remains of the Porcupine Ant-eater ; it is 
said to have a short gutteral cry, and appeared ex- 
ceedingly inactive and stupid, 

15. Pigmy Opossum (Didelphis Pygmaea). 
This is the least of all the Opossums ; is not 
larger than a common mouse : it is a native of 
New Holland. 



WOMBAT. 



The Wombat is a native of New Holland. A living 
one was brought to this country by Mr. Brown, 
librarian to the Linnaian Society, who went as a 
naturalist with Capt. Flinders, on his voyage of dis- 
covery ; it lived in a domesticated state for two years 
in the possession of Everard Home, Esq. to whom, in 
a paper read to the Royal Society, June 23, 1808, 
we are indebted for the following observations :— ■" It 
F2 



32 

*' harrowed in the ground whenever it had an oppor* 
" tunity, and covered itself with earth with surprising 
" quickness; it was quiet during the day, but con- 
" stantly in motion in the night ; was very sensible 
" to cold ; it eat all kinds of vegetables, but waS 
" particularly fond of new hay, which it ate stalk by 
** stalk, taking it into its mouth like a Beaver, by 
*' small bits at a time; it was not wanting in intelli- 
*' gence, and appeared attached to those to whom it 
'* was accustomed, and who were kind to it; and 
" when it saw them it would put its fore paw on the 
" knee ; when taken up, it would sleep in the lap : it 
*' allowed children to pull and carry it about, and 
" when it bit them, did not appear to do it with 
" anger or violence. It appeared to have arrived at 
** its full growth, weighed about twenty pounds, and 
*' was about two feet two inches long." 

The Brazilian Porcupine (Hystrix Prehensilis). 

This very curious animal measures about two feet 
six inches in length, and is entirely covered, except 
the tip of the tail, with short, strong, and very sharp 
spines, of which the largest is about three inches ; it 
inhabits woods, and climbs trees, in which it is assisted 
by its prehensile tail. They are inhabitants of the 
warmer parts of South America. Both the specimens 
in this Collection were kept some time alive in Lon- 
don. Their food was entirely of a vegetable nature, 
and their manner mild and inoffensive ; their voices a 
weak, tremulous cry, somewhat resembling that of a 
young pig, but not so shrill or loud. 

Near this is the Canada Porcupine ( Hystrix Dor- 
sata). 

The spines of this are longer and sharper than the 
last, but owing to its being covered with long. hair, 
are not visible but on close inspection ; it sometimes 



S3 

climbs trees, and is killed by the Indians of North 
America as an article of food ; the beautiful orna- 
mental works on their dresses and utensils are exe- 
cuted with the dyed quills of this animal. 



CAVYS (CAVIA). 

These are all natives of the warmer parts of Ame- 
rica; they feed on vegetables, and either burrow in 
the ground or live in the hollows of trees. 

1. and 2. Spotted Cazys. Burrow in the banks of 
rivers, having three outlets to each dwelling; are 
easily tanned, like the common Cavy or Guinea Pig ; 
its flesh is much esteemed, and eat^n by the Por- 
tuguese and Spaniards of America. 

3. The Long-nosed Caty (Cavia Aguti). Some- 
times called the Java Hare. Is frequently imported 
into this country. 

4. The Rock Cavy (Cavia Aperea). 

5. and 6. River Cavy (C. Capybara). It is the 
largest of the Cavias, and the only one known to have 
been brought to this country; it lived two years in 
the possession of Mr. Kendrick, of Piccadilly; was 
extremely gentle, and fed on vegetables, though in a 
state of nature they are said to dive and catch fish 
with great dexterity. A singularity in the animal. 



which has not been noticed by writers, is, that on th© 
outside of each hind foot, it has a large, horny pro- 
jection, four inches long and two broad, probably 
intended to assist it in swimming. 



BEAVER. 



The Beaver (Castor Fiber). 

The Beaver is a native of the most northern parts 
of Europe, Asia, and America; in its natural state 
lives in well-regulated societies of from two to three 
hundred each, constructing their habitations of wood 
and clay in the most astonishing manner, with the 
greatest regularity ; but when taken from their native 
haunts they are said, by all naturalists who have had 
an opportunity of observing them, to lose their instinct 
and become a stupid and sluggish animal. The fol- 
lowing anecdote may, however, be relied on : — a pair 
of them was purchased a few years since by Mr. 
Polito, for the purpose of exhibiting in his Collec- 
tion ; they were put into an upper room or loft, 
with a quantity of green sticks and boughs for their 
food ; on visiting them in the morning, only one 
/Could be discovered, which was lying in a state of 
evident uneasiness in a corner of the room : at last, 
after some search, the female was found to have died 
in the night, and the male had removed her to an 



35 

«bscure part of the place^ and covered her carefully 
over with wood, so that no part of her could be seen, 
and had then retired to the place where he was 
found. 



MARMOT. 



The Marmot (Arctomys Marmota). 

The Marmot, when taken young, is more capable 
of being tamed than any other wild animal ; it will 
easily learn to perform feats with a stick, to dance 
and obey the voice of its master ; it bears a great 
antipathy to the dog, and when it becomes familiar 
in a house, and is certain of being supported by its 
master, it will in his presence attack the largest dogs, 
and boldly fasten on them with its teeth. They are 
natives of the Alps and Pyrenean mountains, and 
remain in a torpid state from the end of September 
to the beginning of April. They live in societies, 
from five to fourteen in number, in burrows which 
have several passages constructed with great art; the 
principal apartment at the end is warmly lined with 
moss and hay ; and it is asserted that this work is 
carried on by the whole company ; that some cut the 
finest grass, others pull it up, others take it in their 
turn to convey it to the hole; upon this occasion, it is 
added, one of them lies on its back, permits the hay 
to be heaped on its belly, keeping its paws upright 



to make room, and in this mannei* is dragged, hay 
and all, to their common retreat. Whenever they 
venture abroad, one is placed as a centinel, sitting oni 
an elevated rock, while the others amuse themselves 
in the fields below ; and no sooner does he perceive a 
man, an eagle, a dog, or any other enemy, than he 
informs the rest by a kind of whistle, and is himself 
the last to take refuge in the cell. These animals 
run much swifter up hill than down ; they climb trees, 
and run up ihe clefts of rocks with great ease : indeed 
it is ludicrously said of the Savoyards, who are the 
general chimney-sweepers of Paris, that they have 
learned their trade from the Marmot, 



SaUIRRELS (SCIURUS). 

These are a numerous and active race of animals> 
dispersed over most parts of the world ; their food is 
wholly vegetable, of which they lay up stores for 
their winter provision. 

1. The Black Squirrel (Sciurus Niger). 
Inhabits North America, where it does much mi3« 

chief to the maize plantations. 

2. Grey Squirrel (Sciurus Cinerius), 

This is also a native of America, and is so great a 
pest to the farmer, that very considerable sums have 
been paid for their destruction. 



37 

3. Pair of Russian Squirrels, A variety of S, 
Vulgaris. 

4. Palm Squirrel (S. Palmarum). 

Inhabits the hot parts of Africa and Asia : feeds 
principally on cocoa nuts. 

5. & 6. Ground Squirrel (S. Striatus). 

Native of the colder parts of America and Asia ; 
burrows under ground, and has cheek pouches, with 
which it carries home its winter stock of provisions. 

7. Fli/iitg Squirrel o^ America (S. Volucella). 

Is less than the common European, being not above 
five inches long, and is of a grey ash colour on the 
back, and white on the under parts ; he has black 
prominent eyes like a mouse, with a large broad flat 
tail. The name seems to imply that he is endowed 
with wings like a bat, which however is not the case; 
for he has only a loose skin on each side, extending 
from the fore to the hinder feet, with which it is 
connected ; this skin he can stretch out like a sail, 
which holds so much air, that it buoys him up, by 
which means he can jump from one tree to another at 
a great distance, insomuch that some have thought 
he had the faculty of flying. He feeds on the same 
provisions as other squirrels, and may easily be made 
tame; but he is apt to do a great deal of mischief in 
corn fields, by cropping the corn as soon as it begins 
to ear. 

8. & 9. An undescribed species from Senegal. 



38 



HARES (LEPUS), 

1. American Hare (Lepus Americanus). 

2. American Hare, just receiving its winter cloth- 
ing, which in the northern part is entirely white. 

3. Hare from Senegal, greatly resembling the 
common, but the hair much shorter and finer, and 
the animal of a less size than ours. 

4c Angora Rabbit (Lepus Angorensis). 



The La7na (Camel us Glama). 

This is a native of the Peruvian mountains, and 
was the only beast of burthen known to the original 
inhabitants : it resembles the Camel in being able to 
abstain from drink for a considerable time, and travels 
about three German miles a-day, carrying a burthen 
of i50tb. This specimen is about six months old ; 
bred in 1811, by I. Thorpe, Esq. of Chippenham 
Park, near Newmarket, and is the only one ever 
produced in this country. 

The Vicuna (Camelus Vicuna). 

This is another of the Peruvian animals, with 



39 

which, till lately, we have not been well acquainted. 
It inhabits the highest mountains of the Andes m 
flocks; is timid and gentle, but very swift : it car- 
ries small burthens, although it is not easily tamed ; 
their wool is extremely fine ; from it is manufactured 
cloths of the most exquisite softness and beauty, 
known by the name of Vigona Cloth. This speci- 
men is the only one ever brought alive to this 
country ; it was in the extensive Menagerie of Mr. 
S, Polito, to whose liberality in encouraging the im- 
portation of foreign animals the public are indebted 
for the knowledge of many interesting subjects be- 
fore unknown. 

The Memina, male and female (Moschus Memi- 
na). 

These were received from Java; one of them 
lived some time in the Menagerie of her Royal 
Highness the Duchess of York, who presented it to 
the Museum. The other was presented by her 
Royal Highness the Princess Charlotte of Wales. 

The Stag (Cervus Elephus). 

A remarkable fine specimen of this noble animal ; 
presented by the Earl of Derby, in whose park at 
JCnowsley it led the herd for several years. 



G2 



40 



CAMELOPARDALIS (GIRAFFA). 

The Camelopardalis, or Giraffa (Cumelopardalis GU 
raffa) which is by far the tallest of all known quad- 
rupeds, measuring the extraordinary height of seven- 
teen feet three inches from the hoof of the fore foot 
to the top of the head, whilst (so disproportionate 
is the form) that the body scarcely exceeds that 
of a horse. Till lately the existence of so wondeiful 
an animal was doubted by many European Natura- 
lists, who ranked it amongst the fabulous monsters of 
antiquity. 

This specimen was lately killed at a considerable 
distance, in the interior of the Cape of Good Hope, 
by the Rev. Mr Edwards, an African Missionaryj^ 
now travelling in that country, under the patronage 
of Lord Caledon, the Governor of the Cape. It 
is represented as an harmless, timid animal, living 
in small herds of six or seven together, in the plains 
that border on Cailraria : they are so extremely 
shy and wary, that it is w^ith the greatest difficulty 
they can be approached : they feed on the fruit 
of the wild apricot, and on the tender branches of 
several species of Mimosa. This specimen, which 
is a full grown male, and very rich in colour, is 
allowed to be the finest ever brought to Europe, and 
is in the most perfect preservation. 

Such is the excessive rarity of this singular animal, 
that from the decline of the Roman Empire till the 
middle of the eighteenth century its existence was 
deemed extremely problematical, if not in the high- 
est degree chimerical. The contradictory accounts 
of Oppian, Heliodorus, and Strabo, at periods wheq 



41 

curiosity might have been amply giatified, and inves- 
tigation have received the Fullest and most satisfactory 
conviciion, by attending the public games (upon 
which occasions, Pliny informs us, it was frequently 
exhibited), were alone sullicient to create justifiable 
doubts, and propagate an opinion of the inaccuracy 
of the statements and inadvertency of these writers 
upon thf subject. The narratives of succeeding tra- 
vellers, who ielt little inclination to observe, or whose 
opportunities of observation were limited and few, 
only tended to increase this perplexity, already too 
intricate, and by their dark, ambiguous details, 
equally opposite and vague, to confirm the previous 
supposition of its fabulous and imaginary origin. 

That this conjecture should have been strengthened 
by a perusal of the several relations of our travellers 
and naturalists, ought not to excite surprise, when 
we remember wc are told, by one, that the length of 
its fore-legs is double that of those behind — by ano- 
ther, that this disparity does not exist — by a third, 
that such is their astonishing length, that a man 
mounted on horseback may with ease pass beneath its 
body, — and by a fourth, that in point of magnitude, 
it does not exceed the size of a small horse. 

From such a contrariety of evidence, the veracity 
of the traveller became disputed, and the credulity of 
the naturalist an object of derision. The whole was 
rejected as a fictitious invention — was classed with the 
crude abortions of Pliny's fervid imagination; and 
such was the influence of this variety of testimony, 
that though ('apt. Carteret had given a distinct account 
of a Girafie killed at the Cape of Cood Iio|)e in the 
year 1769, Mr. Pennant still refused to yield his as* 
sent, till convuiced by personal inspection of a skin 
preserved in the University of Leyden, Tlie cloud of 
uncertainty, however, winch has so long hovered 



42 

over the real form of this beautiful and extraordinary 
animal, has of late years been dissipated by the mi- 
nute descriptions of Gordon, Vaillant, and Sparrman, 
From them we have learned its size, its proportions, 
and peculiarities, with an accuracy and fidelity both 
laudable and decisive. Yet, whilst we are fully ac- 
quainted with the external qualities of the Giralla, it 
is to be lamented we know so little of its habits. 
An extreme docility, and remarkable passiveness of 
disposition, form the prominent features of its cha- 
racter. Antonius Constantius, a writer of the fifteenth 
century, and one of the earliest of modern travellers 
who has noticed it, mentions one which he saw led 
through the streets of Fano, so gentle and quiescent 
in its conduct, that the children of the town brought 
bread and fruit, which it patiently ate from their 
hands, and received the gratuitous offerings of the 
spectators at their windows as it passed. Mr. Gor- 
don also records an anecdote of the Girafia slain by 
himself, which represents it in a truly amiable and in- 
teresting light. Having wounded it with a musket- 
ball, it suffered him to approach it as it lay upon 
the ground, without ofiering to strike with its horns, 
or shewing any inclination to revenge itself. He 
even stroked it over the eyes several times, which it 
only closed without evincing an)'^ signs of resentment. 
When its throat was cut, for the purpose of procuring 
the skin, and whilst lying in the agonies of death, 
it struck the earth with its feet, with a degree of 
violence and force far exceeding that of any other 
animal. In these, Mr, Vaillant informs us, lay his 
only means of defence ; yet such is the rapidity 
with which he is enabled to exert them, that the 
succession of their movements almost escapes per- 
ception ; and so powerful are the blows inflicted, 
that they are sufficient to repel the attacks of the 



43 

Lion, though of httle avail against the fury and impe° 
tuosity of the Tiger. 

Its general food consists of the leaves of a species 
of Mimosa, called by the natives, kanaap, and by the 
planters, kamel-doorn ; though when grass is to be 
obtained (which from the scarcity of pasture in the 
southeni provinces of Africa is but seldom) in com- 
mon with other horned cattle, it joyfully partakes of 
such a repast. An erroneous opinion, however, has 
been promulgated, that when feeding upon shrubs 
and herbage, it is compelled to extend its legs to a 
considerable distance, in order to bring its mouth ia 
contact with the earth. This, Mr. Vaillant, who has 
been peculiarly explicit upon the subject, contradicts, 
from his own experience and observation both whilst 
grazing and drinking, and pertinently remarks, that 
if we will compare the length of the neck with that 
of the legs and body, we shall discover there is no 
necessity for this unnatural assistance. This testi- 
mony is also confirmed by the representation given of 
the GirafFa in the beautiful Proenestine pavement of 
Sylla, where we observe it delineated amidst a herd 
of African quadrupeds, browsing in the customary 
posture of other beasts. 



44 



ANTELOPES (ANTILOPE). 

1. The Blue Antelope (Antilope Leucophoea), was 
received from Senegal; is also found at the Cape of 
Good Hope. 

2. Corrine Antelope (Antilope Corrina). 

3. Female of the above. 

4. The Harnessed Antelope (Antilope Scripta). 

A most beautiful species found near the Senegal 
river. Presented by his Royal Highness the Duke of 
York. 

5. Pigmy Antelope (Antelope Pygmaea). 

This beautiful and diminutive species is only nine 
inches high. It inhabits the hotter parts of Africa, 
and is said, by authors, to be capable of leaping 
a wall twelve feet high; it is easily tamed, but 
is so tender as not to survive a removal from its 
native clime. 

The Broad-tailed Sheep. A curious African spe- 
cies, sent by the Dey of Algiers to the Earl of Liver- 
pool, who presented it to the Museum. 



The Zebra (Equus Zebra). This extremely- 
beautiful animal is a native of the hotter parts of 
Africa, and is frequently seen in herds in the neigh- 



A5 

bourhood of the Cape of Good Hope; they are 
however so extremely wild and cautious as rarely to 
be taken, and are of a disposition so vicious and 
untameable as seldom to submit to the bridle, even 
when taken young. In size, the Zebra is superior to 
the Ass; in its colour it is much more elegant: 
the ground is white or cream colour, and the 
whole animal is decorated with very numerous black 
or dark brown stripes, disposed with the utmost sym- 
metry in a manner not easily to be described. 

The Pecari, or Mexican Hog (Sus Tajasu). 

Inhabits the warm parts of America, feeding on 
vegetables and reptiles : is said to attack and devour 
the Rattle Snake with impunity. 



On a Rock, near the Sea View, are placed the 
SEALS. 



The Common Seal (Phoca Vitulina). 

This animal is a native of the European Seas, and 
is found about all the coasts of the Northern hemis- 
phere, and even as far as the opposite one, being seen. 
in vast numbers about the southern polar regions. 
We are informed by Mr. Pennant, that it also inhabits 
some fresh-water lakes, as that of Baikal, Aral, &c. 
Seals may often be observed sleeping on the rocks 
H 



46 

near the coast ; but when approached too near, they 
suddenly precipitate themselves into the water. — = 
Sometimes they sleep sound; and it is affirmed by 
some, that the Seal sleeps more profoundly than 
most other quadrupeds. The structure of the Seal is 
so singular, that, as Buffon well observes, it was 
a kind of model on which the imagination of the 
Poets formed their Tritons, Sirens, and Sea-gods, 
with a human head, the body of a quadruped, antl 
the tail of a fish. The Seal is possessed of a con- 
siderable degree of intelligence, and may be tamed, 
so as to become familiar. The female Seals produce 
their young in the winter season, and seldom bring 
more than two at a birth. It is said, that they suckle 
their young ones for about the space of a fortnight on 
the spot where they are born, after which they take 
them out to sea, and instruct them in swimming and 
seeking their food, which consists offish, sea-weeds, 
&c. 

Falkland- Isle Seal (Phoca Australis). 

Remarkable for the structure of the hind-feet, the 
webs of which extend far beyond the claws, which in 
the fore feet are wanting. 

A small Seal, from Davis's Straits, supposed to be 
PJioca Pucilla. 

Near this, on the right hand side, is seen, as de- 
scending from a rock, the White, or Greenland Bear 
(Ursus iVlaritimus). 

This is a far larger species than the common Bear, 
and is said to have been sometimes found of the 
length of twelve feet. The head and neck are of a 
more lengthened form than in the common Bear, 
and the body itself is longer in proportion. The 
whole animal is white, the ears are round and small. 



r^)] 



ifi.- ■«' 




47 

the eyes little, and the teeth of extraordinary mag- 
nitude; the hair is of great length, and the limbs are 
extremely large and strong. It seems confined to 
the coldest part of the globe, being found within 
eighty degrees of north latitude, as far as any navi- 
gators have yet penetrated. The shores of Hudson^s 
Bay, Greenland, and Spitsbergen, are its principal 
places of residence ; but it is said to be carried 
sometimes on the floating ice as far south as New- 
foundland. — The Polar Bear is an animal of tremen- 
dous strength and fierceness. Barentz, in his vo}' age 
in search of a North-east passage to China, had 
proofs of the ferocity of these animals, in the Island 
of Nova Zembla, where they attacked the seamen, 
seizing them in their mouths, carrying them olF 
with the greatest ease, and devouring them in the 
sight of their comrades. It is said that they some- 
times will attempt to board armed vessels at a distance 
from shore, and have been repelled with difficulty. 
Presented by S. Staniforth, Esq. of Liverpool. 

On one of the Basalt Columns near the Sea, is 
the Platypus (Platypus Anatinus). 

Of all the quadrupeds yet known, this seems the 
most extraordinary, exhibiting the perfect resem- 
blance of the beak of a duck engrafted on the head of 
a quadruped ; so great w as the resemblance, that Dr. 
Shaw, who published the first account of it, could 
scarcely refrain from thinking it a deception ; but 
we are since become acquainted with the animal and 
its habits. It is a native of New Holland, and is 
found in fresh water lakes in the neighbourhood of 
Port Jackson, in the muddy banks of which it pro- 
cures its food. Governor Hunter observed a native 
spear one w ith great dexterity ; but it used its sharp 
claws with such strength, that it was necessary to 
confine it between two boards in order to extract th« 
H2 



48 

barb, when it ran off with greater speei] than from 
the structure of the fore feet it seemed capable of 
doing on the land. 

Near the Zebra is, perhaps, the largest specimen 
of the Land Tortoise ever brought into this country, 
the shell alone measuring 3 feet 2 inches in length, 
and near 6 feet in circumference ; it is the Testuda 
Indica of Liimaeus. 

Twisted round the Trunk of the Large Tree be- 
hind the Zebra, is a specimen of the Great Serpent of 
Surinam ; and on the ground, vyith its head erect, near 
the window opposite the Stag, is another from the 
Brazils ; presented by his Royal Highness the Duke 
of York : they are near 20 feet long, and are of the 
kind that has usually been called the Boa Constrictor, 
but they belong to the Genus Coluber. 

On the Rocks, near the commencement on the 
Land Side, is the Coryphene, or Dolphin — see Com- 
panion of the Museum, p. 106. 

The Torpedo Raj/ (Raja Torpedo). 

Frog Fish (Lophius Europaeus). 

Young Shark — see Companion to the Museum,, 
p. 114.. 

Porcupine Fish-^see as above, p. 108. 

Near these are a pair of those immense Shells, the 
Chama Gigas of Linnceus. They are the largest of 
all known shell fish, being 3 feet across, and weigh- 
ing upwards of 300tb. This is the Cockle mentioned 
by voyagers as capable of dining a whole ship's 
company. The fish is said to weigh 40tb. : it is 
black, but not ill -tasted, and is generally cut into 
steaks and broiled. 



BOTANICAL SUBJECTS 



PANTHERION. 



Through the windows on the left side of the entrance 
is a fine specimen of Citrus Aiirantium, the Seville 
Orange. 

On entering the rooni on the same side, forming 
the division of the first and second windows, is Atro- 
curpus Incisi, the Bread-fruit Tree. 

The fruit of this tree the inhabitants of the La- 
drone, Philiipine, and most of the islands in the 
South Seas, use as bread. Dumpier saj^s, " that in 
" Guam, one of the Ladroue islands, there is a cer- 
*' tain fruit called the Bread-fruit, grov nig on a 
" tree as big as our large apple-tree, with dark leaves. 
" The fruit is round, and grows on the boughs like 
*' apples, of the bigness of a good penny -loaf: 
*' when ripe it turns yellow, soft and sweet; but the 
" natives take it green and bake it in an oven till the 
*' rind is black; this they scrape ofjj and eat the inside. 



tance from the window, is Agave A/nericana, Ameri- 



50 

" which is soft and white like the inside of ne^T 
'* baked bread, having neither seed nor stone ; but, 
" if kept longer than twenty-four hours, it is harsh. 
** This fruit is in season eight months in the year, 
" and the natives feed on no other sort of bread du- 
** ring that time." 

Somewhat to the right of the foregoing, at a dis- 
nee from the wind( 
can Aloe, in bloom. 

The next division of the windows is formed by 

Citrus the Five-fingered Lemon, or Citron, an 

agreeable acid fruit, which is used by the inhabitants 
of hot climates for the same purposes as the Common 
Lemon. 

Fronting the third window, is 3Tusa Sapkntum, the 
Banana. This plant is to the inhabitants of the 
West Lidia Islands, what the Bread-fruit Tree is to 
the countries where it is indigenous, the staple article 
of food : the fruit is so essential to the natives of 
tropical climes, that they never go to a distance 
without taking a quantity of it with them. When 
" the West Indians undertake a voyage, they make 
*' a provision of paste of Banana, which in case of 
" need serves them for nourishment and drink ; for 
" this purpose they take ripe Bananas, and, having 
" squeezed them through a fine sieve, form the solid 
" fruit into loaves, which are dried in the sun or in 
" hot ashes, after being previously wrapped up in 
" the leaves of the Indian Flowering Reed." 

When they make use of this paste they dissolve it 
in Water, which is very easily done, and the liquor^, 
thereby rendered thick, has an agreeable acid taste 
imparted to it, which n)akes it both refreshing and 
nourishing. 



51 

Twining round the stem of the Banana, is Passi- 

Jlora Quadrangularis, the Square-stalked Passion 

Flower. This is the only s|;ecies producing an 

eduble fruit, which in the West Indies is known by 

the name of Granadilla. 

The stem dividing the third and fourth windows, is 
the Annona Reticularis, Custard Apple. This, with 
two otlier species, are frequently confounded under 
the appellation of sweet and sour sop. 

Placed between the Rhinoceros and Elephant, is 
Dimocarpus Liichi, which produces a beautiful straw- 
berry- 1 ike fruit. 

At a short distance to the right, is a variety know^n 
by the name of Mandarin Orange; when ripe it has 
a peculiar fine flavour, and has the ap^^earance of 
being double. 

Trained on the fourth window is a curious variety 
of Peach, which is cultivated in China, on account 
of its luscious fruit. 

Trailing on the Rocks over the Den of the Lion, 
is the Bottk Gourd, a native of the West Indies. 

Projecting as from the back of the room, are seen 
the Fruit of Addinsonia Digitata, the Boabad. This 
is one of the largest of the vegetable tribe, being (as 
we are informed) sometimes found exceeding seventy 
feet in circumference ; the leaves as well as fruit are 
V'sed by the negroes for food : the latter they dry and 
tiien pound ; after which, they mix the powder with 
their drink, which in some measure allays the violent 
perspirations that frequently prove dangerous in hot 
climates. 



^9 

From ^he centre division is seen a fruit known to 
the Chinese by the name of Date. 

The two centre window frames and divisiofi are 
formed of a branch of 2uercus Suber, the Cork Tree. 

In the adjoining window, is a small branch of 
Passiflora Alata, the Winged-stalked Passion Flower. 

Nearly opposite the centre of the same window, 
is Carica Papaya, the Papaw Tree, with its fruit in 
different stages of maturity. 

The division of the next window, is Psidium Pj/re- 
fcrum, the Guava, or Bay-Plum, a fruit frequently 
imported into this country in the form of jelly, from 
the West Indies, 

In the back ground, to the right of the Papaw, i* 
"Borassus FlabelUformis, the Palmira, Fan, or Malabar 
Palm. From this plant the natives of India obtain a 
very agreeable liquor susceptible of vinous fermen- 
tation, from which they either distil a spirit, or by 
evaporation obtain sugar. The leaves of this and 
other species are used by the inhabitants of Asia and 
Ceylon as paper, requiring no other preparation than 
to be separated and cut smooth with a knife; they are 
"written upon while fresh with a steel, or stylus ; the 
characters thus traced are rubbed over with charcoal 
or other black substance, which gives them the dis- 
tinctness of engravings. The wood of this tree is of 
a dark colour, elegantly veined with yellow, and is 
used for buildings and domestic purposes. The 
leaves are also used for umbrellas, one of which 
Thunberg asserts, ** is sufficiently large to shelter six 
*' persons from rain.'' 

In front of the last, is Uremia Speciosa, an interest- 
ing and highly carious plant, nearly approaching ii^ 
external appearance the Strditzia and Hdeconia. 



63 

Behind this, towards the corner, is Pandannus Odo- 
ratissifnus, the Nicobar Bread-fruit. This, though 
of so tempting an appearance, is but very indifterent 
food, and is but seldom eaten but in cases of necessity. 

Behind the Pandannus, is Citrus Decumana, the 
Shaddock, the fruit of which was cast from recently 
imported specimens. 

At a few paces to the right, is Cocus Nucefera, the 
Cocoa-nut Tree. This well known tree rises to the 
height of sixty feet ; is crowned with a bunch of ten 
or twelve leaves, each leaf being from ten to fifteen 
feet in length, and composed of a double range of 
flag-shaped leaflets : the cocoa is of slow growth ; 
but, to compensate for this, it lives long, and regu- 
larly bears fruit three or four times in the year. In 
Ceylon, it is a common practice to make an incision 
in the flower sheath, from whence issues a white 
sweet liquor, of a pleasant flavour, which th** natives 
call Toddj/. This dlsiila £r<jm the wound, and is re- 
ceived in earthen pots or chatties, which are sua* 
pended from the branches. 

It is a wholesome and cooling drink, while fresh, 
but this is not long, as it contains a quantity of sugar, 
and of course, in the warm climate of Ceylon, it soon 
ferments; in the space of twenty-four hours it be- 
comes acid, and after a time proves intoxicating. 
The fruit of this tree is the Cocoa Nut, so generally 
known in this country; when half ripe, it contains a 
quantity of clear water, better known by the name of 
milk; this has a pleasant smell and most agreeable 
taste : in countries where the heat is intense, and the 
ground frequently parched for want of moisture, the 
milk of this nut proves, from its coolness, a deUghtful 
and refreshing beverage. 

I 



6A> 

Every part of this tree is destined for the service of 
man : of the rind of the nut the natives make their 
cordage and nets ; of a light, loose substance that 
grows among the branches, cloth of various kinds^ 
and for various purposes, is manufactured ; the 
branches and stems are used in buildings and for 
domestic purposes, while the leaves are employed to 
cover the roofs and repel rain : these last are also 
made into mats, baskets, and other domestic utensils. 

Embracing the stem of the Cocoa, is a beautiful 
variegated species of Gourd, cast from a specimen 
raised in this country. 

Fronting the last window on this side, is a beautiful 
and high-flavoured, though diminutive, species of 
Orange, modelled from a drawing in the possession 
of Sir Joseph Banks, whose unbounded liberality in 
forwarding scientific enquiry, the proprietor of this 
Establlghment has gratefully to acknowledgp— as, 
from Sir Joseph's peroonal cluc»-ti«jii3, the use of his 
library and valuable collection of fruit, the principal 
part of these curious exotic vegetables were mo- 
delled. 

On the stem, dividing the two last windows, is 
Mangifera Dojuesdca (the Mango), the fruit of which 
is well known in this country as a pickle. 

Fronting the Cameleopard, is Areca Catechu (the 
Betel Tree), whose fruit is in this country known by 
the name of Betel Nut (and used here as a dentifrice); 
it grows in clusters at the top of the stem, in the 
manner of the cocoa ; they are about the size of a 
hen's egg, and the natives chew them in the same 
manner as tobacco is used in this and other coun- 
tries. 

The nuts are prepared by first cutting them in 



63 

slices, and sprinkling them with slacked Ifme, and 
then wrapping them in leaves of some species of pep- 
per, which they masticate with the nut. The wood 
is used in building the habitations of the natives. In 
America, the trunks of the trees are used as water 
pipes, for which purpose they are admirably adapted, 
from the hardness and durability of the wood. 

The Passion Flower, climbing the tree, is of the 
same species as the one already described with the 
Bannana. 

Continuing to the right, is Tliea Virides (the Green 
Tea Plant) which is now pretty generally cultivated 
in most conservatories and green-houses in this king- 
dom. 

Growing from behind the trunk of the large tree 
in the corner, is the Mimosa Scnndens, Climbing Mi- 
mosa. The immense pods or seed vessels are hang- 
ing pendant from a small branch; in one of the small 
windows fronting the sea view, a pod is placed, 
which serves to shew the exact form : it is not a 
large specimen, as they are frequently met with full 
four feet in length. 

From the last-mentioned window is seen, Rhizo^ 
phora Gi/mnorhiza the Mangrove or Oyster Tree. 
This is a native of the East Indies, where it attains 
the height often or twelve feet; it affects moist situa- 
tions, generally within the influx of the sea, where 
the tide can wash its stem. There is something ex- 
ceedingly curious in the manner which nature has 
chosen to conduct the seed of the Mangrove to the 
earth ; it is a remarkable deviation from the general 
rule, and is simply thus : — The fruit produces a 
single seed, inclosed in an oblong capsule, which, 
when ripe, begins to germinate without falling from 
the tree. A little radicle makes its appearance from 
12 



66 

the top of the capsule, from whence it proceeds in the 
form of a ligneous fibre, till it is more than a foot 
long ; in this state the seed hangs pendant, till by its 
weight, added to the continual occilations to which it 
is subject from the slightest breath of air, it is dis- 
engaged from the capsule and falls to the ground. 
The process which follows is common to other seeds. 

The seeds are said to fall so as to rest in a vertical 
position ; this may easily happen where the ground 
is continually moist and soft enough to receive any 
impression, which is constantly the case where these 
trees aie found. 

In China, the bark is employed to strike a black 
dye ; it emits a very strong sulphurous exhalation 
and the wood, which has the same odour, burns very 
briskly and with a dazzling flame. 

In consequence of the Mangrove growing as it 
were in the water, it becomes the resort of fishes, 
particularly oysters; the last deposits its spawn upon 
the stems and branches, which iri time become loaded 
with them ; and the oysters gathered from such si- 
tuations may readily be known by pieces of the wood, 
which are generally attached to the shells. 

From the circumstances above related, the tree has 
taken the common appellation of Oyster Tree. 

Rising on two green stems, are the heads or flowers 
of Cyperus Papi/rus, the Papyrus. They are placed 
rather to the left of the Mangrove. 

From this plant the ancient Egyptians formed their 
books or papers. For this purpose, the thick part of 
the stalk was cut in two ; the pellicle between the 
pith and the bark, or perhaps the two pellicles, were 
stript oft" and divided by an iron instrument, which 
was probably sharp pointed, but did not cut at the 
edges. This was squared at the sides, so as to be 



A7 

fike a ribband, then laid upon a smooth table, after 
being cut the length the leaf required. 

The Egyptians applied the Papyrus to several 
purposes, independent of the manufacture of paper. 
The roots sometimes served them for fire-wood, and 
were formed into different domestic utensils. Of the 
stems, interlaced together, they constructed a kind 
of boat; and of the interior bark, they made their 
sails, mats, clothes, cordage, and coverlids of their 
beds. 

The boats made of Papyrus resembled great bas- 
kets, compactly woven together, and plaistered with 
some resinous substance. It was probably in a ves- 
sel of this kind that Moses was exposed, when he was 
found by the daughter of Pharaoh, on the banks of 
the ^'ile. 



[For the above and other interesting accounts of 
the Botanical subjects in this Exhibition, we are 
indebted to Wood's Zoography.] 



END OF THE PANTHERION. 



Lately was Published, 

IN SEVEN LARGE OCTAVO VOLUMES, WITH A 
LIFE OF THE AUTHOR ; 

A DICTIONARY 

Of the various Terms used in Natural History, 

AND APPROPRIATB COPPERPLATES, 

Price 51. 5s. in Boards, or Ql. well Bound, or with the 

Plates elegantly coloured, in boards, 6/. Qs, 

or well bound, 7/. 75. 

A GENERAL 

SYSTEM OF NATURE, 

THROUGH THE THREE GRAND KlfJGDOMS OF 

Animals^ Vegetables^ and Minerals; 

SYSTEMATICALLY DIVIDED 

JNTO THEIR SEVERAL 

Classes, Orders, Genera, Species, and Varieties; with 

their Habitations, Manners, Economy, 

Structure, and Peculiarities. 



Translated from the last Editions of the celebrated 
SYSTEMA NATURiE, 

BY SIR CHARLES LYNNE: 

AMENDED AND ENLARGED BY THE IMPROVEMENTS AND DISCOVERIES 
OF LATER NATURALISTS AND SOCIETIES, 

By WILLIAM TURTON, M. D. 

AUTHOR OF THE MEDICAL GLOSSARY, &C. &C. 



" Thus may our life, exempt from public haunt, 
" Find tongues in trees, books in the rr.nning brooks, 
'• Sermons in stones, and good in every thing." 

_ SHAKESPEARi:. 

LONDON : 

PRINTED FOR LACKINGTON, ALLEN, AND CO. TEMPLE OF 

THE MUSES, FINSBURY-SttUARE. 



'■10 :-rii 



Man, always curious and inquisitive, and ever desirous 
ot aoding to his useful knowledge, among other 
sources of amusement and instruction, is naturally 
led to contemplate and to inquire into the works of 
Nature. He looks with grateful reverence upon 
those vast families of created beings, which it has 
pleased the Author of all things to place subordinate 
to his wisdom and power : he examines, with wonder, 
their formation; habits, and economy ; and hears, with 
delight, the narrations of those who have sought after 
the Natural Curiosities of distant countries. 

That this beautiful and inviting study may be faci- 
litated, and that the whole of the productions and 
inhabitants of this our globe may be arranged and 
conveniently exhibited, systems have been invented, 
reducing them to their several kingdoms, classes, 
tribes, families, and individuals; with their names, 
habitations, manners, economy, and appearance. 
These have enjoyed their various degrees of repute 
and excellence ; but the amazing comprehension, 
learning, and labour, of the celebrated Sir Charles 
Linne, has produced a system so clear and simple, 
so compendious and accurate, that the lover of 
Natural History may directly discover the name and 
properties of whatever subject may fall in his way, or 
he may choose to investigate. 

In systematic arrangement, the student has this 
peculiar advantage, that by immediately arriving at 
the name, the whole of its known qualities are at once 
displayed to him; but without a systematic classifica- 
tion, he wanders in obscurity and uncertainty, and 
must collect the whole of its habits and peculiarities 
before he can ascertain the individual he is examining?. 



Ill 

The traveller, for example, who wishes to collect 
the more curious subjects of Natural History, finds a 
bird, whose name, habits, and economy, he is desirous 
of investigating ; from its conic, sharp-pointed bill, 
slender legs, and divided toes, he finds that it belongs 
to the order Passeres ; and from its thick, strong, 
convex-bill, with the lower mandible bent in at the 
edges, and the tongue abruptly cut off at the end, he 
refers it to the genus Loxia, or Grosbeak ; and run- 
ning his eye over the specific diffeiences, he imme- 
diately determines it, from its exactly answering to 
the specific character, *'Body above, brown ; beneath, 
yellowish-white ; crown and breast, pale yellow ; 
chin, brown; to be the Phillippine Grosbeak {Loxia 
Phillippina) a little bird which he finds is a native of 
the Phillippine Islands, and endowed by nature with 
instinctive notions of preservation and comfort, nearly 
approaching to human intelligence; that it constructs 
a curious nest with the long fibres of plants, or dry 
grass, and suspends it by a kind of cord, nearly half 
an ell long, from the end of a slender branch of a tree, 
that it may be inaccessible to snakes, and safe from 
the prying intrusion of the numerous monkies which 
inhabit those regions ; at the end of this cord is a 
gourd-shaped nest, divided into three apartments, the 
first of which is occupied by the male, the second by 
the female, and the third containing the young; and 
in the first apaitment, where the male keeps watch 
while the female is hatching, is placed, on one side, a 
little tough clay, and on the top of this clay is fixed 9 
glow-worm, to afford its inhabitants light in the night* 
time. 

The angler catches a fish, and from the singularity 
of its appearance is desirous to ascertain its place in 
the Science of Ichthyology, its name and habits ; 
by its " broad pectoral fins, which more or less re- 
semble the feet of quadrupeds," he finds it belongs 



to the genus Lophius ; and by its " depressed body, 
and rounded head," he discovers it to be the Common 
Angler, or Fishing Frog (Lophius Piscatorius), a 
heavy, sluggish animal, that swims with difficulty, 
lurks behind sand-hills and heaps of stones, and 
throws over the long slender appendages resembling 
worms, or baits, with which its head is furnished, in 
order to entice the little fish to play round them, till 
they come within its reach to devour them. 

That the English student may be put in possession 
of this vast treasure, comprehending and illustrating 
all Nature through the three kingdoms of Animals, 
Vegetables, and Minerals ; a translation from the 
last edition of the Systema Naturae of Linne, by 
Gmelin, amended and e*ilarged by the improvements 
and editions of later Naturalists, is now undertaken at 
great labour and expence. 

The expediency of this translation has long been 
acknowledged, and the want of it often lamented ; 
and it shall be a principal view of the Editor to de- 
jiver it in as intelligible and as useful a form as the 
nature of such a work will admit. The Linnaean 
terms will be rendered as nearly as possible to the 
idiom of the English language ; and a general Ex- 
planatory Dictionary of such as are peculiarly ap- 
propriate to the Science will be affixed to the last vo- 
lume, which will also contain a biographical account, 
and a fine portrait of the author. The work will be 
accompanied by such copper-plates as are properly 
introductory to the several departments of Birds, 
Fishes, Insects, Botany, &c. And for the conve- 
niency of such as wish to become acquainted with 
the productions of their own country, the different 
subjects of Natural History, hitherto found in Great 
Britain, will be pointed out by an asterisk. It will 
be printed nearly in the same form as Withering's Bo- 



tanical Arrangements, and will make seven large 
octavo volumes. 

** He that enlarges his curiosity after the works of 
Nature," says a celebrated writer, *' demonstrably 
multipHes the inlets to happiness. A man that has 
formed a habit of turning every new object to his 
entertainment, finds in these productions an inex- 
haustible stock of materials upon which he can em- 
ploy himself without temptation to envy or malevo- 
lence ; faults, perhaps, seldom entirely avoided by 
those whose judgment is much exercised upon the 
works of art. He has always a certain prospect of 
discovering new reasons for adoring the Sovereign 
Author of the Universe, and probable hopes of ma- 
king some discovery of benefit to others, or of profit 
to himself." 

The traveller who has leisure and inclination to be 
acquainted with this charming Science, who may 
find it necessary to determine what animals are fit 
for food, and what are poisonous, or who may wish 
to add whatever new materials may occur to him ; 
the collector of such subjects as are valuable either 
for their beauty or their rarity, and who may wish to 
arrange his cabinet according to the laws of Nature 
and Science ; and the retired and private individual, 
who may desire to fill his vacant hours with a natural 
knowledge of the various objects around him, must, 
except they be well acquainted with the Latin Lan- 
guage, and the technical terms peculiar to the Science, 
be for ever ignorant of the means by which this in- 
formation may be best obtained. 

Had Natural History been more scientifically 
known, Milton would not have described the Whale 
as a scaly animal, nor the Snake as having a hairy 
mane : nor would the arms of many of our nobility 
have been supported by the representations of com- 



vi 

pound animals, existing only in the wild imagination 
of fanciful dreamers. 

The advancement of Agriculture, and most of our 
arts and manufactures, must depend in no small mea- 
sure upon our comparative knowledge of Natural 
History, particularly Chemistry and Botany ; and 
these will doubtless become enlarged as this Science 
is more studied, and more kaown. 

The Editor therefore hopes, that m delivering 
this work in the English La iguage, he is adding 
something to the stock of innocent amusement, and 
something to general utility. 



^ Companion 



TO 



MR. BULLOCK S 

LOMDOM MUSEUM. 



The Numler at the Corner of each Case refers 
to the Page of this Catalogue^ in ivhich it is 
descriled. 



SANDWICH ISLANDS.— Case, f 

Letter A. — A superb Cloak, made of the black fea- 
thers of the Powhee bird, ornamented with a broad 
checquered border of red and yellow. This Cloak is 
so long', as to touch the feet of the wearer, and is 
considerea of the greatest value. It is worn by none 
except the chiefs, and by them only on particular oc- 
casions; as they never appeared in them but three 
times during Captain Cook's stay at Owyhee, viz. at 

,f Several of the articles in this Case were once the property 
of the celebrated Captain Cook. 

B 



the procession of the king and his people to the ships, 
on their first arrival ; in the tumult when the uufortu- 
nate commander fell a victim to their fury and mis« 
taken resentment ; and when two of the chiefs 
brought his bones to Captain Clarke. 

B. — Red-feathered Cloak, decorated with yellow, 
from ditto. The ground of these elegant and singu- 
larly beautiful cloaks is net-work wrought by the 
hand, upon which the feathers are so closely fixed, 
that the surface resembles the thickest and richest 
velvet, both in delicate softness and glossy appear- 
ance. 

C— A Helmet, composed of wicker-work, covered 
with red feathers. 

D, — Another Hehnet of a different construction, 
covered with black feathers. These helmets, with 
the dresses, form the principal riches of the chiefs of 
the South Sea Islands. 

E. — A large Hat, made of red, yellow, and black 
feathers ; remarkable for its resemblance in form to 
those of Europe. 

F. — Two Neck Ornaments, made of different co- 
loured feathers, from the Sandwich Islands. 

G. — Breast Plate, or Gorget, from Otaheite, made 
of wicker, covered with feathers, and ornamented 
with rows of shark's teeth. 

H. — Small Idol, of black wood, from ditto. 

I. — War Club, from the Sandwich Islands. This 
club, which belonged to a chief of Owyhee, is 
armed with a very hard, sharp, polished stone, which 
makes it somewhat like a battle-axe ; the other end 
is pointed, for the purpose of a pahoo or dagger. 

K. — A Basket, from the Friendly Islands. — That 
the untutored Indians of the South Seas exceed the 



3 

artists of every civilized nation in this kind of work, 
the above basket is a proof ; for it is of so close a tex- 
ture, as to hold any liquid. It was used by the gen- 
tleman (who brought it from the South Seas, and 
presented it to this Museum) as a punch bowl. 

L. — Fish Hook, from the N. W. coast of Ame- 
rica. 

M. — A Necklace, made of the teetli of the Pec- 
cary. 

N. — Head Ornament, made of mother-o*-pearl and 
tortoiseshell. New Caledonia. 

O. — A beautiful Fiy-Jlap, purchased at the sale of 
the late Leverian Museum. In the first part of the 
Reference Catalogue to this once celebrated reposi- 
tory of curiosities, an account is given, in a note, of 
the manner in which it came into the possession of Mr. 
Samwell, the late surgeon of the ship Discovery, who 
publi hed a Narrative of the Death of Capt. Cook; 
he informs us he brought this Fly-flap home with him, 
of which he gives the following account : — '* The 
'* natives of the Sandwich Islands always endeavour 
" to carry off the dead bodies of their friends slain 
'* in battle, even at the hazard of their own lives, 
'* This custom is probably owing to the barbarity 
** with which they treat the body of an enemy, and 
" the trophies they make of his bones ; a remarkable 
" instance of which I met with at Atowai. Toma- 
** taherei, the queen of that island, one day paid us 
" a visit on board the Discovery, accompanied by 
" her husband, Taeoh, and one of her daughters by 
*' a former husband, whose name was Oteeha. The 
*' 5'oung princess, who was called Orereemo-horanec, 
*' carried in her hand a very elegant Fly- flap, of a 
" curious construction. The upper part of it was 
'* variegated with alternate rings of tortoiseshell and 

B2 



*' human bone; and the handle, which was polished, 
*' consisted of the greater part of the os humeri (bone 
" of the upper arm) of a chief, called Mahowra ; 
*' he had belonged to the neighbouring island of Oa- 
*' hoo; and in an hostile descent he made upon this 
" coast had been killed by Oteeha, who was then 
*' king of Otowai. His bones were in this manner 
** carried about by Oreieemo-horauee, as trophies of 
" her father's victory. The mother and daughter set 
*' a great value upon it, and were not willing to part 
" with it for any of our iron ; but Tomataherei hap- 
*' pening to cast her eye upon a wash-hand basin of 
*' mine, which was^of queen's ware, it struck her 
*' fancy, and she oliered to exchange. I accepted 
*' of her proposal, and the bones of the unfortunate 
"' Mahowra came at last into my possession/' 

P. — An Under Garment, made of the bark of the 
Touta or Cloth-tree, curiously decorated, from the 
Sandwich Islands ; presented by the Rev. Doctor 
Clarke. ' 

Q,. and R. — Tivo Caps from Africa ; one made of 
grass, which, for fineness of workmanship and regu- 
larity of pattern, exceeds any thing of the kind of 
European manufacture. What must appear wonder- 
ful in this work of art is, that it is knit with wooden 
sticks after the manner of stockings. 

The one marked R, was presented by Captain, 
Campbell, and is made of the fibres of bark. 

In the other Case of South Sea articles is the upper 
part of the Chief Mourner's Dress of Ceremony at 
the Funerals of Otaheite. The part worn over the 
face is of large plates of mother- o'-pearl shell fas- 
tened together with fibres of the cocoa nut : opposite 
the right eye is a hole for the purpose of seeing 
through; the edges of the face-plates are bordered' 
with the long tail-feather of the tropic bird, and 



make an elegant appearance ; across the breast is 
stretched a most elaborate drapery, composed ol' se- 
veral thousand pieces of mother-o*-pearl, each sepa- 
rately drilled and fastened together in a manner that 
would be found dillicult for an European artist to 
copy, even with the advantage of iron tools, which 
were totally unknown to these islandeKs. 
• This very interesting article was (with many other 
valuable curiosities) presented to the Museum by Sir 
Joseph Banks, whose liberality and patronage of 
every thing connected with the promotion and dif- 
fusion of knowledge and science, are too well known 
to be noticed here. 

In the same Case are two of the monstrous and un- 
couth Idols, made by the natives of these islands. 
The ground is of wicker, worked into a rude and 
enormous representation of the human head. They 
are covered with red feathers, and the mouth (near a 
foot long) is thickly set with teeth of the seal. The 
eyes are composed of pieces of mother-o*-pearl, with 
a round knob of black wood In the centre, and the 
head of one of them is rendered more terrific by 
being adorned by a large quantity of the snaky 
tresses of the natives. 

A fine Feather Helmet and Cloak from the Sand- 
wich Islands, presented to the Museum by the Rev. 
Dr. Clarke ; and an extremely curious pair ot Brace- 
lets, made of boar's teeth, presented by Mr. G. 
Humphrey. 



On the Rail of the Gallery are hung a number of 
the weapons, &c. of the South Sea Islanders, among 
which are — 

Tabooing Rods, or Wands. One of them is made 
of a beautiful close-grained red wood, and is pointed ^ 



on the other is the head of the Eatooa, or God, finely 
carved These wands are carried by the priests, and 
sometimes by another person particularly appointed 
to that office, who is called Tonata (or the Taboo 
Man). They are made use of on various occasions, 
both pubhc and private, and aijy thing touched by 
them is considered as prohibited or forbidden. The 
word Taboo, used emphatically to denote any thing 
sacred, eminent, or devoted. When a particular 
space of ground is tabooed, several of these rods or 
wancis, tufted with dou's hair, are fixed up, and until 
they are removed, no person will presume to tread on 
that ground. Otaheite. 

Different kinds of long War Clubs used in the 
Friendly Islands. These are made oi wood, equal in 
hardness to the Brazi'ian, and superior in beauty to 
mahogany; and when it is remembered that iron and 
steel are wholly unknown to these people, few speci- 
mens, for laborious and skilful workmanship, can vie 
with them. The carving, though executed with no 
other instrument than a shell, a shark's tooth, or a 
flint, by dint of industry and ingenuity is perfectly 
uniform in pattern, and highly ornamental. 

Paddle or Oar, with M^hich the natives of the 
Friendly Islands row their canoes. It is about five 
feet long, and six inches across the widest part, and 
yet is so light as to weigh little more than a pound. 

Various kinds of short Hand Clubs, or Pattapatloos, 
of different forms and materials. They are worn by 
the natives of the South Seas, in the same manner as 
daggers are worn by the Asiatics, and are usually 
made of hard wood, bone, green jade stone, or ba- 
saltes. 

A Knife, from the Sandwich Islands, made of wood, 
edged with shark's teeth, used by the natives of those 
islands for cutting up their enemies taken in battle. 



Basket, from New Zealand. 

Axes, or Adzes, made of very hard black stone of 
the basaltes kind. The hatchets are wrought in a 
regular form with much labour, by rubbing one stone 
against another ; with these the natives cut the wood 
for their canoes, war clubs, and household utensils; 
the heads of these axes are firmly listened to the 
handles with strong cords, made of the fibres of the 
cocoa nut twisted together. 

A large Fish Hook, for taking the shark ; it is one 
foot long and six inches broad, and is made of a 
crooked piece of wood, pointed at the end with a 
substance resembling horn. Otaheite. 

Near these are several of the Military and Domes- 
tic Implements of New Holland ; presented by Dr. 
Jamieson. 



Small Glass Case, marked A. 

A pair of ponderous Ear-rings, made of white 
shells, from Christian's Island. 

A Necklace of human bone, from New Zealand. 

Beautiful Feather Necklaces, from the Sandwich 
Isles. 

Gaiters, worn by the dancers of the Sandwich Isles. 
The ground-work is a strong, close netting, on which 
are fastened several hundred small shells which, 
when put in motion, produce a rattling sound, to the 
music of which the dancers keep time. 

In this Case is also a variety of the Fishing Tackle 
#f the Sandwich and Friendly Islands. The hooks 



are made of mother-o'-pearl, bone, or wood, pointed 
or barbed with small bones or tortoiseshell. They 
are of various sizes and forms ; that marked A is the 
most common: it is between two and three inches 
long, and made in the shape of a fish, which serves 
as a bait. B is of a tortoiseshell. 

The lines are made of different degrees of strength 
and fineness. That marked C is the finest kind, and 
is of human hair plaited together, and is used chiefly 
for things of ornament. D is a specimen of the com- 
mon kind, made of the bark of the cloth tree, neatly 
and evenly twisted in the same manner as our com- 
mon twine. E is a softer kind, made of the bark of 
a small shrub called Aieemah, plaited together, and 
is flat. That marked F is of great strength, being 
made of the plaited sinews of some sea animal. 

They likewise make another sort of cordage, which 
is flat and very strong, and used principally in lash- 
ing the roofs of their houses, or whatever they wish 
to fasten together ; it is made of the fibrous strings of 
the cocoa nut husk, in the same manner as our sailors 
make their points for the reefing of sails. That on 
the shark hook is of this kind. Considering the ma- 
terials of which these hooks and lines are formed, 
their strength and neatness are really astonishing: 
**■ and in fact (says Captain Cook) we found them 
*' upon trial far superior to our own/' 

The Combs marked G are from the Friendly Islands, 
and are specimens of their exquisite wicker-work. 

A quantity of Fishing Lines, made from human 
hair, brought from the South Seas. 

A Net Mesh from the South Seas. 

A Shoe of a Chinese Lady. 

A Shoe of Count Borulaski, the Polish Dwarf. 

A Tattowing Instrument^ from Otaheite. Captain 



9 

King, in his continuation of Captain Cook's third voy- 
age, vol. ill, page 135, observes "That the Sand- 
** wich Islanders have the custom of tatiovving the 
*' body in common with the rest of the natives of th^ 
** South Sea Islands. The arms and hands of the 
" women are also very neatly marked, and they hav^e 
** a singular custom among them, the meaning of 
" which (Captain King says) we could never learn^ 
" that of tattowing the tips of the tongues of the 
" females. From some information we received re- 
** lative to the custom of tattowing, we were inclined 
** to think it is frequently intended as a sign of 
*' mourning on the death of a chief, or any other 
** calamitous event ; for we were often told, that such 
" a particular mark was in memory of such a chief, 
" and so of the rest. It may be here too observed, 
'* that the lowest class of natives are often tattowed 
** with a mark that distinguishes them as the property 
" of some chief." 

Model of a Canoe, Nootka Sound, 

New Zealand Canoe. 

Models of Canoes of different nations — Eskimaux, 
Davis's Straits, New Zealand, &c. 

Lines for Fishing, made of human hair. 

Basket to hold liquids; from the Sandwich Islands, 
South Seas. 

Bread- Pounder, from Otaheite. It is made of 
black basaltes, and is an astonishing effort of labour, 
executed by a people to whom the use of iron in- 
struments are unknown. It is used in pounding the 
bread fruit. 

Spear-Caster, from New Caledonia, by means of 
which the natives strike fish with a surprising celerity. 

Caps, from Nootka, or King George's Sound, made 
C 



10 

©f s<?a grass finely woven together; on one is de^ 
signed the process of their whale fishery. *' This 
** (says Captain Cook) though rudely executed, 
" serves to shew, that though there is no appearance 
" of the knowledge of letters among them, they 
" have some notion of representing actions in a 
" lasting way, independent of what may be recorded 
*' in their songs and tradition/' They are worn by 
both sexes without distinction. 

Hats, from South America, made of the feathers 
of parrots and other birds. 

flatting, from the South Sea Islands. 

A MantlCy from New Zealand. This kind of or- 
nament passes under the right arm, and ties over 
the left shoulder, by which means both arms are 
at liberty. It is made of flax so curiously knotted 
together, that on examination it must astonish the 
beholder, more especially when he considers that it 
was made by a nation to w horn the loom is unknown. 

Wooden Sword, from Botany Bay. It is worthy of 
remark, that when Captain Cook first discovered New- 
Holland, he was surprized to behold the natives so 
expert in handling the sword after the European man- 
ner, from which he concluded they had seen and co- 
pied the use of that weapon. 

Bows and Arrows of different nations. 

Two small Cloaks, made of feathers, to cover the 
shoulders- — from the South Seas. 



Glass Case of Botanical Suhjects, marked B. 
Most of the articles in this Case were presented to 



ii 

the Museum by Dr. James E. Smith, President of 
the Linnaean Society. 

Specimens of the Bark of the Lagetto Tree, the 
curious texture of which resembles gauze. King 
Charles II. (it is said) had a pair of ruffles and a 
cravat made from this bark, which were presented 
to him by a merchant from Jamaica, which he fre- 
quently wore. The cloth of the South Sea Islands is 
made from a similar bark. 

Fine specimen of the Banksia Seirata, in flower. 
This is one of the four species of Banksia described 
in the Supplementum Plantarum of Linnaeus, speci- 
mens of which are contained in the Herbarium of that 
great naturalist, now in the possession of Dr. J. E, 
Smith. 

The Banksia Serrata is considered as the most 
stately of the genus : its trunk is thick and rugged. 
It is a native of New Holland, and received the de- 
nomination of Banksia in compliment to Sir Joseph 
Banks. 

Banksia Serrata in Fruit, a fine specimen. — New 
Holland. 

Wooden Pear^ Xylomelum Pyriformc. This spe- 
cies was first discovered at Botany Bay, when the 
coast of New South Wales was first explored by Sir 
Joseph Banks and Dr. Sulander. The natives call it 
the Merry-dugur-ro. The tree which bears this 
ligenous Pear is an evergreen. 

Heath-leaved Banksia, Banksia Erici-folia ; from 
New Holland. 

Yellow Gum, from Botany Bay. Xanthorrhcea 
Hastile. 

Cylista Comosa, from Sierra Leone. 

Afzelia Speciosa, from Sierra Leone, 
C2 



12 

New Zealand Flax (Phormium Tenax) of which 
the natives make their cloaks, twine, &c. 

Strings of Beads, made of Aromatic Berries, from 
South America. 

Pod of a very large Bean. Cotton in the Pod and 
in Flower. 



CURIOSITIES 

From North and South America, 

A Dress worn by the Eskimaux Indians, principally 
made of seal skins, with the hairv side outwards. It 
is a kind oi jacket, nearly resembling a carter'^ frock, 
with a hood to it, that fits tight round the face, which 
is the only part of the body that is seen ; the skirts 
of the frock reach nearly to the knee, and under it 
are worn a kind ofdrav.'ers, made of the same ma- 
terials as the above ; the legs are covered with stock- 
ings made of skin, with very thick hair on, and over 
these are drawn a pair of curious boots, made of the 
skin of some sea animal. The whole of this dress is 
well calculated for the cold climate where it is worn. 
The sewing is performed with small sharp fish bones, 
and the sinews of the whale split into thin fibres for 
thread ; yet we believe that few European tailors 
could exceed either the neatness or strength of the 
work. 

Halter, made of the bark of the Lagetto or Cab-* 
bage Tree. 



13 

MaucasionSy or Shoes, worn by the Indians of North 
America, ornamented with Porcupine quills and tas- 
sels of red hair. The leather is said to be dressed in 
blood, which prevents the wearer's feet from freez- 
ing ; on which account they are often used by Euro- 
peans in that country. 

A 2uiver of poisoned Arroios, with the Tube used 
in discharging them 3 brought from Demerara. These 
instruments of destruction are nine inches long, and 
about the thickness of a small quill; they are made 
of a light wood, sharply pointed, and are dipped in 
poison to the depth of two inches, which generally 
proves fatal to the object that is wounded by them : 
they are discharged with unerring certainty, by being 
blown through a hollow tube of wood, nine feet long. 
Near the quiver hangs a small basket, which contains 
a down-like substance, a small piece of which is put 
into the tube after the arrow, which prevents the. 
escape of the air, and causes it to fly with almost in- 
credible velocity. 

An ornamental Belt, used by the North American 
Indians, for bringing home the skins of animals taken 
in hunting excursions. 

Botu and Fish Arroios, from the North- West coast 
of America. 

Several Pouches, some of them very curious; from 
North America. 

Pair of ornamental Garters, principally made of 
Porcupine quills; from North America. 

A Purse, or Tobacco Pouch, made of the Skin of 
the Stiffling or Squash, ornamented with tassels of 
Deer's hair; from North America. 

Ornament for the neck, made of the shells of some 
small hard nut ; from Demerara. 



14 

Boiv and Quiver of Arrows^ from Demerara. 

Several Musical Instruments, from Demerara, among 
which is a kind of Flute. 

A great variety of Bows and Arrows, from Suri- 
nam. 

Calumet, or Pipe of Peace, used by the North 
American Indians, to smoke tobacco, bark leaf, or 
herb, when they enter into an alliance on any serious 
occasion or solemn engagement ; this being among 
them the most sacred oath that can be taken, and the 
violation of it is thought deserving of the punishment 
of Heaven. 

A Snow Shoe, from Hudson's Bay, upwards of five 
feet long ; it is very light, and covers such a space as 
prevents the feet of the wearer from sinking into the 
snow. 

A pair of Snow Shoes, for a child. 

A pair of Snoiv Shoes, from Canada, not so long as 
the preceding, but broader and rounder in front. 

Neck Ornament, made of Feathers, from South 
America. 

Two Hamjnocks, of curious workmanship, from 
South America ; presented to the Museum by the 
Hon. Col. St. Leger, of Dublin. 



Small Glass Case, marked C, 

A Wampwn Belt, of great value among the Indian 
Chiefs of North America, often given and received as 
a token of peace. 



15 

A Cap, from Africa, made of plaited Grass. 

Chinese Money. These pieces have square holes 
through them, and are always strung together. Se- 
venty-six of them are the value of an English six- 
pence. 

Rouge, used by the Chinese ladies to colour their 
faces. 

Specimen of the Cloth made of Amianthus, a soft 
species of Asbestos, that will remain in the hottest 
fire without burning. Pliny mentions his having seen 
napkins of this cloth, which being taken from the 
table after a feast, were thrown into the fire, and by 
that means were better cleansed than if they had been 
washed in water. But its principal use, according to 
that author, was for making shrouds for royal funerals, 
to wrap up the corpse, so that the human ashes might 
be preserved distinct from those of the wood. 

Asbestos, or Mineral Flax, in its natural state. 

Mica, or Talc, used for windows before the inven- 
tion of glass. Clear white plates of this substance are 
used for glazing the lanthorns of men of war, as fire 
has little effect on it. 



16 



AFRICAN CURIOSITIES. 



A singular Musical Instrument, from the Slave 
Coast, somewhat resembling the Italian Sticcado : it 
is made of pieces of hard sonorous wood, of different 
lengths, placed upon a frame, under which are fixed 
gourds of various sizes. It is played upon by beating 
it with two sticks, with balls at the end. On the 
coast of Africa it is called Balafou; and when it is 
played by a skilful hand, it produces an agreeable 
harmony. 

A small kind of Sticcado, made of sonorous wood. 

An Instrument, consisting of a small square board, 
on which are fixed pieces of very pliant wood, which, 
on being struck, produce a musical sound. 

African King's Sceptre, in shape like a rod, being 
made of small split pieces of bamboo cane. These 
are valued according to their length, for by that the 
rank of the person is known ; that of the King's being 
made of the longest joints of bamboo that can be 
found in his dominions. 

Curious Sword, formerly the property of a Man- 
dingo Chief. Inclosed in the hilt is a fettish or charm, 
to preserve the wearer's life, composed of a piece of 
skin of the Iguana, which in that country is held 
sacred. 

Curious Cartouch Boxes. 

A circular Fan, covered with a parchment-like skin, 
curiously painted. 



17 

Several Poiichesj some of them very singular in 
construction. 

A pair of Sandals, or Shoes. These, in Africa, are 
seldom used. 

Common Black Bottle, curiously cased withwicker- 
\vork. 

African Comb, similar to that of the Sandwich 
Islands. 

A rude Necklace, composed of stones that have holes 
naturally through them, without boring; 

African Spoon, made of wood. 

Curious Wooden Fan. 

A Lady's large Pocket, or Pouch, fmely embroidered 
with the needle-Work of the country. 

African Bows ^nd Quivers of \on§ poisoned Arrows, 

Great variety of African Lances, Arrows, and Dag- 
gers. — See the Daggers in the Armoury. 

A small instrument, similar to a Scottish Mull, 
used for the purpose of grinding tobacco into pow- 
der. 

African Long Drum, covered at the end with 
skin. 

African Pair of Bellows, of very curious con- 
struction. 

African Harp. 

An African Flambeau, made of Flag-leaves, filled 
with a resinous gum. 

Pouch or Pocket, made of grass, used by Negro 
servants to carry letters, &c. 

A kind of Hammock, of singular net-work^ used in 
Africa, either for sleeping or travelling. 



18 

Small Gourds, covered with Net-work, on the 
mesh-knots of which are strung a kind of Black Ber- 
ries, that produce a sound similar to castinets. They 
are used by the Africans wlien they dance. 

An African C//«77?i, called Pettish, consisting of a 
Ruju's Horn, to which is suspended a brass chain and 
bell. This is worn round the neck, and is imagined 
by the wearer to charm or drive away evil and tor- 
menting spirits, and preserve life. It was taken from 
the breast of a black man engaged in battle, by Cap- 
tain Clarke, of the ship Roebuck, of Liverpool, who 
presented it to the Museum. 

Specimen of African Cloth, made of grass. 
A curious Sleepiiig Net, or Hammock, from Africa; 
presented by Captain Roberts, of Liverpool. 



WORKS OF ART. 



Beautiful Equestrian Model of Edivard the Black 
Prijice in Armour, finely executed by Mr. G. Bul- 
lock of Liverpool. 

Portrait of Mrs. Siddons in Queen Catherine, and 
Mr, Kenihle in Coriolanus, by ditto. 

Capital Group of Figures, representing the Progress 
of Inebriety ; 

A Blind Beggar, led by a Child ; 

Frederick the Great in his last illness ; 

And, a Dead Christ. 



19 

[The last four pieces are all modelled by Mr. 
Piercy, in coloured wax, and are universally admired 
by every lover of the arts, for the correct and spirited 
manner in which they are executed.] 

A small Anatomical Figure, from the original of 
Dr. Hunter, done in Rice Paste, of its natural 
colour. 

An exquisite Model, in Rice Paste, of the Death 
of Voltaire, by Mons. Oudon, of Paris. 

Gothic Model of an Ancient Armoiay, on a scale of 
an inch to a foot. It contains accurate models and 
representations of every kindof Aimour and Warlike 
Weapon used in the British Armies, from the Norman 
Conquest to the Restoration of Charles II. 

Group of Floivers, wonderfully cut in white Marble. 

Model of a Chinese Pagoda, made of Mother-o'- 
pearl, ornamented with carving and gilding. 

Complete Model of a Man of fVar, only six inches 
long. 

A ditto, entirely of Ivory. 

View of the Lake and City of Genena, most inimi- 
tably carved in Ivory. 

The City of Messina, taken from the Sea ; the 
shipping, dkc. executed wiih astonishing minuteness ; 
some of the vessels, though not more than half an 
inch in length, have the sails, rigging, men, &c, 
perfectly distinct. 

Windsor Castle, with the Thames. 

Greeniuich Hospital, with Sliipping, &c. 

Two pieces with Stags in a Forest. 

[The above six are all in Ivorj/, carved in the most 
exquisite manner by Messrs. Stephany and Dresh.l 
D2 



20 

Sixteen hollow Balls of Ivory, cut within each 
other out of one solid piece by the Chinese in the 
most wonderful maimer, every ball being pierced ot 
a diflerent pattern, ahriost as line as lace. 

Another ditto, with only eight Balls. 

Several beautiful turnings in Ivory, by Mr. Perry, 
of London. 

Picture of a Saint sailing on his Cloak, in Marble 
of its natural colours. 

Beautiful Imitation of Flowers, made entirely of 
Shells, by Miss Humphreys, of Leicester-square. 

Case of Flowers, made of 15uttcrtly's Wings. 
llohj Familjj, from Carlo Maratti, done in Wool, 
at Rome. 

Picture o^ Birds, executed with Feathers. 

Picture, which being viewed in diflerent directions, 
produces three tlillerent subjects. 

AA'iKxX.cXx Merri/-maldng, from Ten iers, in coloured 

Straw. 

A 'few Itahbi, done with a hot iron on Wood. 

Several copies iA' Fngravings \vith Pen and Ink, by 
Mous. Mongenot. 

Model of a Ma7i of War, of sixty guns, entirely of 
Chrystal Glass ; an early work of the Proprietor. 

Complete Model of a seventy-four gun Skip at 
anchor, only six inches long. 

Profde Heads of the following celebrated Painters : 
Titian, Kafaele, M.Angelo, Corregio, Carracci, and 
(.'arlo Maratti. 



21 



THE ARMOURY. 



*' Charm'd with the sight, the ardent breast is fir'd 

" With thoughts like those which ancient bards inspir'd." 



This department of the Museum is fitted up in 
an appropriate and elegant manner, representing 
the interior of the halls of our ancient nobility. 
The armour and various implements of war displayed 
in trophies, or on figures placed under gothic 
canopies, forcibly call to our minds the times of chi- 
valry, and the days when our ancestors, by their 
deeds in arms, carried victory and conquest to every 
part of the world, and were " single handed'' able 
to reduce that country to a state of vassalage that now 
threatens the independence of every government on 
the continent. Amongst this collection of antiquities, 
the Armour is what attracts the attention of every 
visitor ; here an ample field will be open for medi- 
tation : the form, make, and materials of these war- 
suits will be a source of admiration and surprise : 
and when a thought is cast on the warriors, whose 
strength enabled them to bear such a weight of me- 
tal, and at the same time were capable of exerting 
themselves, performing under it every exj)loit ; 
enduring every toil of war ; he will feel himself as 
the offspring of a dwindled race of mankind. 

The Figure on the llorse is dressed in Hauberk, or 
ancient suit of mail, such as worn in the army of 
William the Conqueror, when he invaded this coun- 
try. It is composed of small rings of iron, which. 



22 

passing through four others, are riveted together in 
such a manner as not to prevent any motion of the 
body. Besides their ordinary clotiies, the knights 
wore under their Hauberk a loose garment, called 
Gambeson, which descended as low as the knee ; it 
was stuffed with woollen or cotton, and quilted; its 
use was to deaden the stroke of a sword or lance, 
which, though it did not divide the mail, might se- 
verely bruise the body. Between the Hauberk and 
Gambeson a breast- plate of iron, called a Plastron, 
was occasionally put on ; and over all, men of family 
wore surcoats of satin, velvet, or cloth of gold and 
silver, richly embroidered with their armorial bear- 
ings. Thus enveloped, and loaded with such a num- 
ber of weighty incumbrances, it is by no means won- 
derful that in the midst of summer, in the heat, dust, 
and press of an engagement, men at arms should be 
suftbcated in their armour ; an event which we learn 
from history often happened. Besides the inconve- 
nience of being thus swathed up like an Egyptian 
mummy, a man could have but little power of action, 
and this in some measure accounts for the small 
number of knights slain in an engagement \A'ith 
cavalry only : probably as ransom was so great an 
object in those days, they rather wished to capture 
than kill their enemies, and for that purpose endea- 
voured to unhorse them ; for when overturned, 
they were immoveable, and lay on the spot till 
remounted by their fiiends, or overtaken by their 
enemies. This venerable relic of antiquity came 
originally from the Castle of Tong, in Shropshire, 
and was presented by the Rev. Mr. Buckridge to the 
Museum of the late Richard Green, Esq. of Lich- 
field, from whence it was purchased by the present 
Proprietor. It is presumed that this Hauberk is the 
only perfect one of the kind remaining in England, 



23 

as there is not a specimen exhibited either at the 
Tower or British Museum. In the Treatise on 
Ancient Armour, written by the late Francis Grose, 
Esq. F. A. S. a description is given of this identical 

Suit of Mail, in vol. 2, page 9, plate 21 This 

figure is mounted on a fine Horse, which is likewise 
covered by a suit of Ancient Armour, composed of 
several thousand plates of steel and brass, firndy 
united hy riveted iron rings, of the same construction 
as the Hauberk, along with which it is supposed to 
have been worn. This kind of horse armour is be- 
lieved not to have been common, even at the time 
when it was in use, as not a single specimen except 
the present has reached us, nor has a correct repre- 
sentation of it been published. On this account it 
must be highly interesting to those w^ho are fond of 
examining such relics of antiquity. 

The Figure on the left hand is dressed in a 
complete suit of Pikeinan's Armour, worn by the 
arquebusiers and musketeers^ at the first introduction 
of fire-arms. It is in fine preservation, and be- 
longed to an officer who probably used it at the 
memorable siege of Latham House, as it was preserved 
at Cross Hall, in that neighbourhood, a considerable 
number of years. It was presented to the Museum 
by Col. Stanley, M. P. the present proprietor of 
Cross Hall. 

On the right hand is the Figure of a Knight, in 
a suit of bright Steel Armour, of the time of Queen 
Elizabeth : this is called Plate Armour, and is of 
more modern date than the mail, as it came into ge- 
neral use about the middle of the fourteenth century. 
At its first introduction it was made of prodigious 
strength and thickness, and was fitted to every part 
of the body so close, that it was impossible to pierce 
it with a lance. 



24 



In Front of the Gallery^ 

Above the figure on horseback, is a suit of 3Ia7?i€- 
luke Armour and Accoutrements, consisting of a Coat 
of Mail and Helmet: a Shield made of the skin of 
a Rhinoceros ; an elegant and curious Gun, and a 
magnificent Sabre and Battle Axe. The Coat of 
Mail is made nearly in the same manner as the 
Hauberk, only the work is more beautiful : the col- 
lar is of crimson velvet, on which in gold studs is 
written in Persian the following characters : — ''All 
Fatinia Husain Alia Mohammed." On the breast is 
a Talisman, or Charm, to preserve the wearer's life. 

The stock, lock, and barrel of the musket is 
richly ornamented, and mounted with silver. This 
curious piece was taken from the Turks by Count 
Orlow, the Russian General ; afterwards exchanged 
with an English gentleman for a fine horse : the gen- 
tleman presented it to the Right Hon. Lord Paget, 
who gave it to the Lichfield Museum, from whence it 
was purchased by the present Proprietor. 

Near these is the Hauhergeon or Norman Suit of 
3Iail. This is made in the same manner as the Hau- 
berk, only it is without sleeves, and reaches no lower 
than the waist. By the statute of Winchester, pass- 
ed in the thirteenth year of the reign of Edward L 
every man possessing lands to the yearly amount of 
fifteen pounds, and forty marks in goods, was obliged 
to keep in his possession an Haube'rgeon, an uon head- 
piece, a sword, a knife, and a horse. 

On the opposite side of the Mameluke Armour, is 
a curious ancient Buff Suit, about the time of Charles 



Q6 

the First; presented to the Museum by the Bishop 
of Durham. 

Near this is the Roundel, Rondache, or Norman 
Shield. (See Grose's Ancient Armour, plate 34, 
vol. ii.) This shield derived its name from its cir- 
cular figure ; it is . made of rings of iron, 
fastened together, studded with brass, and lined with 
leather, but they were sometimes composed of oziers, 
boards of light wood, sinews or ropes coveted with 
leather, plates of metal, or stuck full of nails in con- 
centric circles or other hgures. The Norman sol- 
diers carried this shield fastened to a strap and hung 
over the shoulder. The romidels of metal, parti- 
cularly those richly embossed, seem rather to have 
been insignia of dignity, anciently borne before ge- 
nerals or great officers, than calculated for war, most 
of them being too heavy for convenient use, or too 
slight to resist the violence of a stroke, either from a 
sword or battle-axe. 



GLASS CASE OF GUNS. 

Left-hand Side of the Armoury, 

A very curious modern Fowling Piece, made by 
C. Malbon of Chester ; it has two pans, the hi;id- 

E 



26 

most is shut by means of a short lever or regulatary 
while the foremost is used. It fires twice with once 
charging. 

A very curious Double Wheel-lock Musket, from 
the Grand Duke of Tuscany's Gallery at Florence. 
This piece has two pans, two wheels of steel, and 
two flints ; by which contrivance it discharges twice 
with once loading. 

A beautiful small French Fusee, of capital w^ork* 
manship. 

Two Highland Pistols, of different workmanship. 

At the bottom of this Case is a curious ancient 
Missal, on its original stand, made of a solid piece of 
Oak, in an extremely curious manner. 

Guns ranged on the right-hand of the figure of the 
Musqueteer. 

A large Brass-barrelled Air Gun, by Kolbe. 

The air being condensed between the outer and 
inner barrel, and the pump in the butt giving it the 
appearance and portability of a common gun. 

Ancient Snaphaunce Musket, 

American Rifle, taken at Fort Washington. 

Magazine Gun, made at Pontefract, in Yorkshire, 
by Martin Raynald ; it may with ease and safety be 
fired eight times in half a minute, with only onc« 
charging. 



ST 



GUN CASE. 



Right-hand Side of the Armoury, 

A most superb Turkish Musket. The barrel richly 
damasked and inlaid with gold ; the stock is of ivory 
mounted in silver, closely inlaid with gold, and orna- 
mented with precious stones. 

This magnificent and costly article was, with 
several other interesting curiosities, presented to the 
Museum by Sir Joseph Banks. 

A curious and beautiful ancient Spanish Wheel- 
lock Rifle, the whole stock of which is entirely 
covered with the most exquisite inlaid work, in ivory 
and mother-o'.pearl, representing a variety ot figures 
of men, beasts, birds, flowers, &c. 

A fine Persian Match-lock, silver-mounted, the 
barrel richly damasked and inlaid with gold. 

An elegant Turkish Sword, of singular form, called 
the Yatagan ; the whole scabbard and hilt of silver^ 
richly embossed and chased. 

In the bottom of this Case is an illuminated ma- 
nuscript Missal. 



E2 



2S 



GUNS. 



On the Left-hand Side of the Figure in Plate 
Armour, 



A large and ponderous English Match-lock, date 
on it 1(340. 

An ancient English Fowling-piece, with a snap- 
haunch lock, the stock richly inlaid with ivory and 
pearl shells engraved. This piece is supposed origi- 
nally to have belonged to the Skeffington family, 
formerly owners of Fisher\^ ick, now the property of 
the Marquis of Donegal. 

A Magazine Gun, made in Italy in the year 1666, 
which, when loaded at the butt end, may be dis- 
charged, by moving a short regulator, ten times in 
less than half a minute. 

On the left side of the Armoury, over the Gun 
Case, is the Brigandine Jacket. This is mentioned 
in Jeremiah, ch. li. v. 3. and in an act passed by 
Philip and Mary, in 1558. It was used principally 
by the archers, and took its name from the light- 
armed troops who first wore it, being called Bri- 
gands. It is composed of a number of small plates 
of iron, sewed upon quilted linen through a small 
hole in the centre of each plate, the edges laid over 
each other like tiles, or the scales of fish : these 
scales are covered with cloth, so as to have the 



29 

appearance of quilting ; it is proof against the push 
of a pike, or the stroke of a sword, and yet is ex- 
tremely pliable to every motion of the body. The 
Helmet for this suit is called a Skull, or Steel Cap. 

On the other side of the Canopy is a suit of 
Armour, such as was worn by the cavalry in the time 
of Oliver Cromwell ; it Was called Dutch Light 
Horseman's Armour. 

Trophy of Persian Armour, consisting of a beauti- 
ful Match-lock Gun ; a Shield made of the skin of 
the Rhinoceros (bullet proof) ; a Bow Case and 
Quiver of Arrows. On a line with these, is a Trophy 
of curious Guns and Swords of various kinds ; among 
the latter are two with Pistols in the hilts, taken on 
board the Ville de Paris. Near this is a Suit of 
Pikeman's Armour complete ; on each side of which 
is a Trophy of Fire Arms, consisting of a curious 
and extraordinary shaped Spanish Match-lock, of the 
kind first used ; the stock is inlaid with ivory, very 
much curved, and intended to be placed against the 
breast when fired. A very singular English Match- 
lock, and several Wheel-lock and other Pistols. 

Trophy of Chinese Armour, consisting of a Sword, 
Shield, Helmet, and Bow and Arrows. 

On the right-hand side of the Armoury, forming 
a part of the rail in front, is a Long Gun, purchased 
at the late sale of the Leverian Museum. With this 
piece, General Wedderburne (brother to Lord Lough- 
borough) was killed, when reconnoitering a fort in 
the East Indies. The distance from the fort was so 
great, that the shot could not be accounted for, 
until the place was taken, and this long gun dis- 
covered. 



30 

An Indian Match -lock Musket. 

An Iron Spear, the handle of which is hollow and 
plated ; it is from India, and used in hunting. An 
ancient Pike. The last three articles form a part 
of the rail. 

Dispersed in various parts of the Armoury, are the 
following articles, mostly labelled: — 

A great variety of Pieces of Armour, for all parts 
of the body; among which are several pieces 
presented by the Corporation of Stafford to the 
Lichfield Museum ; and a number of Back and 
Breast Plates of difJerent kinds, given by the 
Corporation of Coventry to this Collection. 

Impression of a fine Roman Helmet. 

An open-fronted Helmet, found in a ditch near 
Wigan, a few years since, on the spot where 
the Earl of Derby had a battle with the Parliament 
forces in the year 1631, in favour ofCharles II, 

A Helmet found at Carthage, about the year 1800, 
by J. Jackson, Esq. of Basinghall-street, London : 
it greatly resembles the Morions worn in Europe 
in the time of James I. 

An open-fronted Helmet. 

Several Pot Helmets, or Iron Hats, with broad 
brims. 

The Plastron, or Breast Plate, usually worn under 
the Hauberk, &c. &c. 

A very curious Mahratta Horseman's Sword, 
between four and five feet long, of excellent tem- 
per ; the blade, which is very thin, is fixed into 



31 

a kind of gauntlet that reaches nearly to the 
wearer's elbow, and in which there is a grasp 
across the inside for the hand. See Grose, pi, 50, 
Nos. 1 and 2. 

Two Highland Swords and Targets. 

A variety of ancient Swords, of different nations. 

A large Two-handled Sword, nearly six feet long. 

Singular Iron Pike and Gun-rest. 

Great variety of Gun Locks, some of them very 
curious. 

Halbert, made in the time of Oliver CromwelU 
formerly carried before the Mayor of Chester. 

Indian Match Lock. 

A Sack Bottle. 

An ancient Hat, made of the undressed skin of th« 
Wild Boar. 

A pair of Warrior's Gloves, made of Buffalo's 
hide. 

An ancient Buff Gauntlet, or covering for the 
left arm, worn in the time of Charles I. by Sir 
Francis Rhodes, of Balborough-hall, in Derbyshire. 
It is contrived to answer the purpose of a shield, 
being composed of three skins of buff leather, and 
of strong pasteboard.— It is figured in Grose's 
Ancient Armour, vol. ii, plate 39, fig. 5 and 6. 

An ancient Cross Bow, remarkably strong. 

The Stock of a very rich Arcubalista, or Cross 
Bow, found about the year 1773 by some labourers 



32 

on Bosworth Field, renowned In history for the victory- 
obtained by the Earl of Richmond (afterwards 
Henry VII.) over Richard III. in which Richard 
lost his crown and life. It is so exquisitely carved, 
as to authorise a conjecture that it was the weapon 
of no mean warrior : indeed very few specimens of 
the chisel of the present day excel it. The bow is 
unfortunately lost, and the iron-work that remains 
is much corroded by lying, as it assuredly did, 
298 years in the ground ; on it there are yet to be 
discovered a number of studs and ornamental pieces 
of gold. It is made of yew, the compact texture of 
which wood has so well preserved it from decay. 
In a scarce poem, written by Charles Allen, which 
contains a particular account of the battle of Bos- 
worth, are the following lines : — 

** The archers stript their sleeves, who must define 

" The controversie here debated on. 
*' The sun of Richmond's hope was in the sign 

" Of Sagritarius, and there chiefly shone. 
** The feathers of their shafts sung as they went, 
*' Being newly set to the one-struig'd instrument." 

This fine remain of antiquity is figured and de- 
scribed in the Gentleman's Magazine for February 
1784, and which, with several other antiquities in this 
collection, were exhibited before the Royal Anti- 
quarian Society, in the year 1803. 

A number of Pikes and Lances from Africa, 

Great variety of Irish Pikes, such as were used 
in the late rebellion. 

A collection of Ancient and Foreign Stirrup Irons 
and Bridle Bits ; some of them of an extraordinary 
size and weight. 

Ancient Brass Hanging Candlestick. 




^>= 






Small Glass Case. 



An ancient Sword, formerly used by the English 
Noblemen in their Hunting excursions. On the hilt 
and scabbard of this sword (which are of ivory) 
are most exquisitely carved the death of every animal 
of the chase, comprising more than ninety-seven 
figures. — This admirable W'Ork of art serves in some 
measure to shew in what a magnificent manner our 
ancestors followed their favourite amusements ; and 
it is imagined that few artists of the present day 
could produce so exquisite a performance. Within 
the scabbard are a knife and fork. 

A very rich pair of Spurs, found in the spring of 
1800, in ploughing Bosworth Field • they are of brass, 
enamelled^ and very perfect. 

A singular Iron Spur, the rowels of which are 
13 inches in circumference. 

Curious Iron Spur, enchased with silver; found 
on Bosworth Field. 

Ancient Iron Spur. 

Pair of Gilt Brass Spurs, such as are worn by 
the Knights of the Bath on days of ceremony. 

Ancient Brass Snuffers and Stand of curious work- 
manship. 

Ancient Irish Brass Sword, found near Navan, 
in Ireland, supposed to have been in use before 
iron was known in that country. 

F 



34 

Ancient Brass Celt, found at Winwlck, near Waf- 
riagton, Lancashire. 

Iron Arrow, purchased from the Leverian Museum, 
found in the year 1702 in the field on which stands 
the Castle of Harwood, Yorkshire. 

Leather Skull Cap. 

An ancient Brass Dish, supposed to be Saxon ; 
on the bottom is a rude representation of the Annun- 
ciation, and round the edge a legend in Saxon letters. 

Chinese Sword, of singular make, with a scabbard 
of wood, curiously carved. 

A Moorish Spur, which weighs one pound three 
ounces ; instead of rowels, it is armed with sharp 
pikes of the thickness of a person's finger, and about 
four inches in length. This singular instrument 
appears better designed to kill a horse than to urge it 
forward. 

A large Turkish Powder Flask, mounted and em- 
broidered with silver, formerly belonging to Prince 
Eugene, at tiie sale of whose eilects it was purchased. 
Presented by Henry Blundeil, Esq. Ince Hall. 

An ancient Leather Bottle, embroidered with silk ; 
it holds nearly a gallon. 

Bandileers, or Wooden Cylindrical Boxes, used 
bv the Musketeers of the reign of James and 
Charles I. for carrying their powder. Twelve of 
these were fixed to a belt worn over the left shoul- 
der. The bag that carried the bullets was suspended 
to the belt. 

Ancient Cornet, This horn is supposed to be of 
the earliest invention, and to have been one of the 
first kind of musical instruments used in a militarr 
band. 



35 



Case in Armour?/, 



A curious ancient Dish, inlaid with mother-*o-pearl 
and various coloured glass, &c. — Ancient Work 
Basket, made of cane and different coloured silk. — 
Large Hat, made of cane, curiously wrought, of the 
time of Elizabeth. 

Pair of ancient Stockings, of crimson silk and 
gold ; they are very strong, and curiously ornamented 
on the top : supposed to be of about the time of 
James I, 



V 2 



36 



SPIOES OF DIFFERENT NATIONS. 



Roman Sandal. The strings which lace it in front, 
the sides, and bottom, most ingeniously made out of 
one piece of leather; it was found at the depth of 
fourteen feet, in cutting peat in Havvford Moss, 
Cheshire. 

Turkish Slipper, of yellow leather. 

Persian Shoe, red leather, embroidered with silver. 

East India Shoes, of curious form, and highly or- 
Hamented. 

A Pair of Bramin's Shoes, from the East Indies. 
Perhaps no article of dress, to the eyes of Europeans, 
will appear more extraordinary than these shoes : — 
they are made of hard wood of one piece, in the 
form of the sole of the common shoe, raised from 
the ground about the height of a patten, by a pro- 
jecting piece of wood being left at the foot and at 
the heel. They are fastened to the feet by a peg of 
w^ood that stands between the two largest toes, which 
secures them in walking. 

Chinese Men's Shoes; one of them of cane, beau- 
tifully wrought ; the other of satin embroidered ; the 
sole of woollen cloth, near two inches thick, and 
bent up before in such a manner as to keep the toes 
constantly raised. 



37 

Pair of Shoes worn by ladies in China, whose 
feet have been cramped by the use of the iron 
shoe; and a Model of the Leg and Foot. These 
are of a size so extremely diminutive, that on the 
first view it ajDpears impossible they could have been 
worn by a full grown person ; they are rather more 
than four inches long, and are not an inch wide in the 
middle. This ridiculous custom is said to be per- 
formed by breaking the bones of the feet of the fe- 
males while infants, bending the toes under the soles 
of the feet, applying a tight bandage, and over that 
an iron shoe, which prevents the feet from enlarging, 
and render these unfortunate victims of fashion crip- 
ples for life. 

An African Sandal. 

A Russian Lady's Winter Shoe ; it is of leather, 
with a sole of wood, lined throughout with thick fur. 

Maucason, or Shoe of the North American In- 
dians, ornamented with dyed porcupine quills. 

Snow Shoe of a child, from Canada. 



38 



BIRDS. 



Almighty Beins 



Cause and support of all things, can I view 
These objects of my wonder^ can I feel 
These fine sensations, and not think of thee ? 



The Ornithological department of the Museum 
contains probably a greater number of species than is 
to be found in any other collection: they are in the 
highest possible state of preservation, and arranged 
in their respective families, according to the Linnaean 
classification, in a manner that has met the approba- 
tion of the scientific naturalist as well as the general 
visitor; as combining the whole of the Birds of one 
genus together, and exhibiting them in the order they 
stand in the Systeiiui Naturce, in such a way as to 
convey an idea of their haunts and mode of life. 



King of the Vultures (Vultur Papa). 

The Vulture is the most ravenous of tlie feathered 
race, since he kills prey not from choice, but in 
general devours only such animals as are dying, or 
found dead and putrid. His sense of smelling is so 
exquisite, that he is able to scent a dead carcass at 
an amazing distance. *' They are/' says Pennant, 
** greedy and voracious to a proverb, and not timid, 
*' for they prey in the midst of cities, undaunted by 
'' mankind.'* In some of the battles of the East, 



39 

where vast slaughter takes place of elephants, horses, 
and men, voracious animals crowd to the field from 
all quarters, of which Jackalls and Vultures are the 
chief. Even in the places where the last are at other 
times seldom observed, the plain on these occasions 
will be found covered with them. Vast multitudes 
will be seen in the air, descending on every side to 
partake in the carnage. These the Indians believe to 
be brought by having an instinctive presentiment of 
slaughter some days before the event. It is ob- 
served, that Vultures in general become less nu- 
merous as the climate becomes colder; and that in 
the more northern countries they are never found. — 
They are undoubtedly a kind dispensation of Provi- 
dence in the hotter regions, to prevent the putrid 
effluvia of the dead from too much injuring the health 
of the living. 

The black one in the same Case is a young bird 
of the same kind, previous to its attaining its perfect 
colour. 



BRITISH EAGLES.— No. 1. 



1. The Female of the Golden Eagle (Falco Chrysae- 
tos). Shot near London. 

2. The Fishing, or Sea Eagle (Falco Ossifragus). 

This extremely fine species, which measured 7 feet 
9 inches in the extent of its wings, was killed in 



40 



March, 1810, in Lincolnshire, in the park of Sir 
Joseph Banks, by whom it was presented to the 
Museum. 

3. White-tailed Eagle (Falco Falvus). 

4. Black Eagle (Falco Melanaetos). 



EAGLES, No. 2. 

In this Case is a variety of Birds of the Falco ge- 
nus : several of them are very rare, from South 
America ; those known have their name attached to 
them. Among the most conspicuous is a fine speci- 
men of the Bald, or White-headed Eagle (Falco Leu- 
cocephalus). It is found in great plenty on the 
shores of Hudson's Bay; and I am informed by my 
brother (Lieut. Bullock, R. N.) who passed several 
winters at a Block-house on the coast of Labradore, 
that these birds were so bold as to be extremely 
troublesome, by watching for and seizing the game 
killed by the guns of our people, and often contend- 
ing with them for the prize. 

Golden Eagle (Falco Chrysaetos). 

This is one of the largest birds of the- rapacious 
tribe ; it measures, from the point of the bill to the 
extremity of the tail, upwards of three feet; its 
breadth, from wing towing, about eight feet; and 
weighs from 16 to 18 pounds. The strength of this 
noble bird is such, that it can with ease carry a 
lamb ; and several instances are recorded of its 



41 

having carried ofF children. It is found in variou:^ 
parts of Europe, but abounds most in the warmer 
regions ; it has been known to breed in the moun- 
tainous parts of Ireland ; it lays three, and sometimes 
four eggs, of which seldom more than two are pro- 
lific. It is finely preserved in the act of preying 
on the White Hare of Scotland, 



HAWKS, 



This Case contains 17 Birds of the rapacious kind, 
principally inhabitants of this island. 

1. Moor Buzzard (Falco -^Erugenosus). 

2. Common Buzzard (Falco Buteo). 

3. Peregrine Falcon (Falco Peregrinus). 

4. Ring-tail (Falco Pygargus). 

5. Hen Harrier (Falco Cyaneus). 

This and the last are now proved to be male and 
female. 

6. Kestrel (Falco Tinnunculus). 

7. Kestrel, female. 

8. Sparrow 'hawk (Falco Nisus), 

G 



42 

5. Merlin killing a Leveret. 

10. Domingo Falcon (Falco Dominicencis). 

Is one of the smallest and most beautiful of the 
Hawks. 

11. Domingo Hawk, female. 
I2ajidl3. Names unknown. 



BUTCHER BIRDS (LANIUS). 

These are the last genus of the rapacious tribe ; 
they are bold and quarrelsome, mostly preying on 
small birds, which they tear in pieces, sticking the 
fragments on thorns. Some of them- are natives of 
this country. 



OWLS (STRIX). 

This Case contains 13 of the most remarkable Birds 
of this genus, from the largest to the smallest 
known. They are carnivorous, and in general prey 
by night: those of this country, feeding principally 
on mice, are protected in the barns of our farmers 
on that account. 



43 

1. The Great Horned Oivl of Hudson s-Bay (Strix 
Bubo) approaches nearly to the size of the Eagle : 
it is found in the most cold countries, and preys on 
hares and the larger species of game, &c. 

2. Large Owl, unknown, 

3. Snowy Owl (Strix Nyctea). This extremely 
beautiful and majestic bird is found in Europe, 
America, and Asia : contrary to the habits of the 
others, it preys by day on herons, hares, mice, and 
sometimes carrion — in winter it is quite white. 

4 and 5. Pair of Canada Owls (Strix Eunerea), 
These make a near approach to some of the hawks. 

6. The Tawney Owl (Strix Stridula) inhabits this 
country. 

7 and 8. The Wdte or 'Barn Owls (Strix Flamraea) 
with their young. 

9. The Short-eared Owl (Strix Brachyotos) ^ rare 
British species, visiting us the latter end of summer, 
and departing in spring. 

10. Little Oivl (Strix Passerina). The smallest 
and most rare of the British Owls, little larger than a 
blackbird. 

11 and 12. Indian Horned Oivls (Strix Indica) only 
seven inches long — the smallest known Owl. 



G2 



44 



Small Case of Owls. 

The Sooty Ovol, or CineJ^ous Owl (S. Cineria). 

One of the peculiarities of the Owl genus, is the 
disproportionate largeness of the eyes: this species 
however is an exception to that circumstance, for in 
this, although one of the largest of the family (30 
inches long) the eyes do not exceed those of the 
most minute. This does not appear, to have been 
noticed by any author, probably from their not 
having examined tliem while living. It is a native 
of Hudson's Bay, and is said to prey in the day 
on hares, grouse, &c. Presented by Mrs. Lean, of 
Fenchurch-street. 

The Barred Owl (S. Nibulosa). Is likewise a na- 
tive of Hudson's Bay. 

Three other Small Owls, one of them from Monte 
Video, undescribed ; remarkable for its long and 
slender legs. 



PARROTS (PSITTACUS). 

These Cases contain a numerous and elegant dis- 
play of the Parrot tribe, consisting of about ninety 
species of Maccaws, Cockatoos, Lories, Parrots, and 
Paroquets, of the most splendid and beautiful plu- 
mage, properly arranged and named. 



45 

Of all the foreign birds, the Parrot is best known 
in this country, and is most admired, nor without 
reason, as it unites the greatest beauty with the 
greatest docility. Its voice more exactly resembles 
the human than that of any other bird, and is capable 
of numerous modulations, which even the tones of 
man cannot reach. The facility with which this bird 
is taught to speak, and the degree of memory which 
it possesses, are not a little surprising. So numerous 
are the stories respecting the loquacious faculty of the 
Parrot, that they would fill a volume. Parrots are 
uncommonly numerous in the tropical climates : the 
forests swarm with them, and the beauty of their plu- 
mage, though not their natural voice, adds a degree 
of vivacity to the loveliest of scenes. Though the 
Parrot is commonly domesticated in Europe, it will 
not breed here on account of the cold. It indeed can 
survive our cold winter, but its spirits and appetite 
are both visibly affected by severe weather. It then 
becomes torpid and inactive, and seems quite changed 
from that bustling bird which it appears beneath a 
more genial sky. Nevertheless, with proper atten- 
tion, it will live a number of years under the protec- 
tion of man. The extreme sagacity and docility of 
this bird forms the only apology that can be made for 
the time which is spent in teaching it to talk. At 
first it obstinately resists all instruction, but seems to 
be won by perseverance ; makes a few attempts to 
imitate the first sounds, and, when it has once ac- 
quired the articulation of one word distinctly, the rest 
of the lesson is generally learned! with great ease. 
The sagacity and docility, however, which Parrots 
shew in a domestic state, seem also natural to them 
in their residence among the woods. They live toge- 
ther in flocks, and mutually assist each other against 
their enemies, either by their courage or their notes 



46 

of warning. They breed in the hollows of tree&, 
where they maice their nests. The larger kind lay 
only two or three eggs; but it is probable that the 
smaller ones lay more. The natives are very assidu- 
ous in finding out the places where they nestle, for 
the purpose of procuring the young; because those 
prove the most tractable and lively which are reareci 
in confinement. Indeed the Indians are not anxious 
to possess these birds for their talking alone, for sale, 
or for their beauty, but also for food ; since, though 
some are ill- tasted, others are very delicate eating, 
particularly the paroquet kind. Numerous as the 
species are, and widely as they are disseminated over 
Asia, Africa, and America, yet it appears that they 
were not very generally known lo the Greeks. The 
green Paroquet with a red neck was the first of this 
family imported into Europe : for Onesicrites, the 
conductor or admiral of the fleet of Alexander the 
Great, brought them from the Island of Taprobane, 
the modern Ceylon. They were indeed so new and 
uncommon, that Aristotle, in his 8th book of animals, 
seems not to have seen them, and mentions them 
only from report; for he says, "there is an Indian 
bird, called the Psittace, which is said to speak.^' 
The beauty of these birds made them however ob- 
jects of luxury among the Romans, who lodged them 
in cages of silver, or shells, and of ivory ; and the 
price of a parrot often exceeded that of a slave. To 
enumerate what number of distinct species of these 
birds have already been discovered, would be impos- 
sible, since our vessels from New Holland and the 
southern islands are daily adding new ones to this 
extensive and beautiful genus. 

The one in the larger Case, marked unique, is the 
property of A. Harrison, Esq. of Parliament-street, 



47 

Westminster, to whose liberality I am indebted for 
many of the rare productions of New Holland : it 
was received from Port Jackson, where it was killed 
by Colonel Johnson, and the only one known to have 
been killed at the colony. 



TOUCANS (RAMPHASTOS), 



This Case contains twelve of these highly singular 
birds, among which are the following : 

White-throated Towcaw (Ram phastos Toco). Male 
and Female. 

The bill of this curious bird is of a most uncommon 
size, being nearly as large as the whole body, which 
gives the bird somewhat the appearance of having 
thrust its head into the claw of a large lobster; this 
extraordinary bill is seven inches and a half long, and 
seven in circumference ; it is extremely slight, and as 
thin as parchment. This bird, so formidable in ap- 
pearance, is quite harmless and gentle ; it feeds prin- 
cipally on pepper, which it devours very greedily, 
gorging itself in such a manner, that it voids it crude 
and unconcocted ; this, however, is no objection to the 
natives using it again. They even prefer it to that 
which is fresh gathered from the tree; and seem per- 
suaded that the strength and heat of the pepper is 
qualified by the bird, and that all its noxious qualities 
are thus exhausted. It is a native of South America. 



48 



The Piperine Toucan (RamphastosPiperivorus). 
Male and female. 

Aracari Toucan (Ramphastos Aracari). 
Is a native of South America, remarkable for the 
great size of its bill, as well as the beauty of colour. 

Yellow-breasted Toucan (Ramphastos Tucanus). 
Inhabits South America : habits, similar to the last. 

In the same Case is the Brazilian Mot?not (Momo- 
tus Brasiliensis). 

This beautiful and remarkable bird is about eighteen 
inches long, though the body is not larger than that 
of a thrush: it inhabits unfrequented forests, building 
its nciit on the ground, or in holes abandoned b}?^ the 
Armadillo, and lays two tggs^ feeds on insects, 
which it macerates in water. 

Near the last is a variety of it from Mexico, with 
the crown of the head roufous, and the feather of the 
tail not bare as in the other. 

Above these is the Channel Bill, of New Holland, 
(Scy throps Psittaceus) . The only one of that genus 
known. 



ABYSSINIAN HORNBILL, 

(Buceros Ahyssinicus) . 

This Case contains fine specimens of the Male and 
Female of this rare and very curious bird. They are 



49 

upwards of 3 feet long ; the extraordinary protube- 
rance in the front of the head of all the birds of this 
genus, is in this species very remarkable, appearing 
as if cut through. 

These birds were lately sent froni Senegal, where 
they are said to arrive in a very exhausted state dur- 
ing the hot winds that blow from Abyssinia. In a 
state of confinement, they feed on rats, lizards, and 
other small animals. 



IIORNBILL, No. 2* 



The African Hombill (Buceros Africanus). 

Of all the various forms which are met with in the 
heads of animals, those of the Hornbill appear the 
most extraordinary; to the enormous bill of the Tou- 
cans, nature has added a still larger projection from 
the forehead along the upper mandible, the precise 
use of which has baffled the research of the most at- 
tentive naturalist. Sixteen different species of these 
birds are enumerated by travellers and writers, the 
heads of many of which are preserved in this collec- 
tion. 

Pied Hornbill (Buceros Malabaricus). 

Black-billed Hornbills (B. Nasutus). Male and 
female. They are natives of Senegal, and feed on 
fruits. 

Red'Ulled Hornbill, 

H 



50 

Br. Latham, in his Synopsis, makes these only va- 
riety of the former. Linnaeus thought them male and 
female, and Buftbn thought they differed only from 
age ; but by comparing them, the beak will be found 
to differ exceedingly in shape, so much so, as to leave 
no doubt with me of their being distinct species. 



CROWS (CORVUS). 

This Case contains a great variety of the birds of 
this genus, some of which arc highly beautiful in their 
plumage, while others surprise by their singularity. 
The various kinds are found by navigators inhabiting 
every part of the know'n world. They are in general 
clamorous and mischievous birds, easily tamed, and 
several imitate the human voice distinctly. They are 
promiscuous feeders ; carrion is a favourite food, but 
they do not object to cater for themselves by killing 
rabbits, young ducks, chicken, or any small animals 
they have stren^tli to overpower. Ten species are 
found in Great Britain. 



ROLLER (CORACIAS), 

These are, in their manner and general habits, 
much allied to the last : many of them are of the 
most vivid plumage, of which the Senegal Roller will 
serve as an example. 



51 



ORIOLES (ORIOLUS). 

AND 

GRAKLES (GRACULA). 

This Case contains about 40 Orioles and 8 Gra- 
kles. 

The Orioles are chiefly natives of America, where, 
by their prodigious numbers, and their voracity, they 
do great injury to the jjlantations of corn ; many of 
the species build pendulous nests, some of which are 
suspended at the extreme ends of the branches of 
trees, with the entrance either at the bottom or 
side. 

They are birds of considerable beauty, the general 
prevailing colour being black, contrasted with bright 
red and yellow. 

The Grakles are mostly natives of India, where 
they are frequently kept in cages: some of them 
imitate the human voice much nearer than any of the 
parrot kind, for which reason they are frequently 
brought to this country. They principally feed on 
vegetables. 



H2 



55 



BIRDS OF PARADISE. 



This Case contains, it is presumed, the finest col- 
lection of the birds of this kind in Europe, either in 
respect of number, variety, or preservation. 

Greater Bird of Paradise (Paradisea Apoda). 

No birds have perhaps more puzzled the naturalist 
than those which are termed Birds of Paradise. They 
have been described as the inhabitants of the air, 
never resting on the earth, and living on the dews of 
heaven. Others have asserted, ilmi ihey live on in- 
sects ; while some have insisted, that they have no 
legs ; others again contend, that they have not only 
strong and large legs, but that they are birds of prey. 
But the fact is, that the inhabitants of the Molucca 
Islands, perceivingthe inclinations theEuropeans have 
to obtain these birds, and at the same time taking ad- 
vantage of their creduhty, originally practised many 
deceits in order to enhance their value. Error how- 
ever is not of very long duration ; and, in the present 
instance, it was at length discovered that these birds 
had not only legs, but that they were so dispropor- 
tionably large, that they took away a considerable 
share of the elegance of the birds ; on this account it 
is not improbable they were deprived of them by the 
islanders. Bufion, in his history of birds says, this 
beautiful bird is not much diffused, it is in general 
confined to that part of Asia which produces the 
spiceries, and especially the islands of Aroii. It is 
known also in the part of New Guinea opposite to 
those islands ; but the name which it there receives, 
Burungxirou, seems to indicate its natal soil. The 



63 

Bird of Paradise is supposed to subsist on the aroma- 
tic productions of these islands ; at least, it does not 
live solely on dew. Linnaeus says, it feeds on large 
butterflies; and Bontius, that it sometimes preys 
upon birds. Its ordinary haunt is in the woods, where 
perching in the trees, the Indians watch it in slender 
huts, which they attach to the branches, and shoot it 
with their arrows of reeds. The ancients seem to 
have been totally unacquainted with the Bird of Pa- 
radise. Beloii pretends that it was the Phoenix of 
antiquity ; but his opinion is founded on the fabulous 
qualities of both. The Phoenix, too, appeared in 
Arabia and Egypt, while the Bird of Paradise has 
remained always attached to the oriental parts of Asia, 
which were very little known to the antients. — The 
extreme elegance of the tail-feathers of this bird 
have made them expensive articles of female deco- 
ration. 

Lesser Bird of Paradise. 

This differs from the last, in being considerably 
less, and in having a long flowing feather at the sides, 
of a much finer texture and colour. 

The Magnificent Bird of Paradise (Paradisea 
Magnifica). 

The Gorget Bird of Paradise (Paradisea Nigra). 
This is a most splendid and beautiful bird, and 
likewise extremely rare. Presented by Lady Banks. 
Gold-hreasted Paradise Bird (P. Aurea). 
A remarkably fine specimen. 

King Bird of Paradise (Paradisea Regia). 

This superb bird is usually called the King of the 
Birds of Paradise ; but this appellation is drawn from 
fabulous accounts. Clusius was informed by the ma- 
riners, from a tradition which prevailed in the East, 
that each of the species of the Birds of Paradise had 



^4 

its leader, whose royal mandates were received with 
submissive obedience by a numerous train of subjects ; 
that his majesty always^ flew above the flock, and 
issued orders for inspecting and tasting the springs, 
where they might drink with safety. It inhabits the 
islands of the Indian Ocean, and returns to New Gui- 
nea in the rainy season ; feeds on berries, is a solitary 
bird, and is highly valued on account of its rarity 
and beauty of plumage. 

Black-bodied Bird of Paradise. 

This beautiful and uncommon bird, which does 
not appear to have been seen by any English writer, 
is, like the others, a native of the Molucca Islands, 
but is a rarity even in that country ; the plumes 
being worn only by persons of the first rank ; the 
whole of the head, neck, body, and tail, is a 
fine black, with a velvet-like gloss, the latter 
changing in some lights to a rich purple. The bill 
is long, black, and somewhat hooked ; the feathers 
under the lower mandible reaching a considerable 
part of its length : from the back of the neck rises 
a divided tuft of long, thick, close-set black feathers, 
edged with resplendent emerald green j from the 
sides of the body and wings rise two tufts of long 
delicate silky feathers, as in the common Bird of Pa- 
radise, only smaller, six on each side of which have 
strong black wire-like terminations about nine inches 
long, destitute of every appearance of feathers. 

Blue Green Bird of Paradise (Paradisea Viridis). 

Golden Bird of Paradise (Latham's Synopsis, vol. 
1, page 483). 

Superb Bird of Paradise (Paradisea Superba). 

Pair of Birds of Paradise, undescribed. 



65 

The Red Bird of Paradise. 

This beautiful and very rare bird we are acquainted 
with through the figure in the splendid publication of 
Oiseaux Dores, in which it is called Le Paradis Rouge: 
it seems to be nearest allied to the greater Bird of Para- 
dise, the principal difference being in the colour of the 
long side feathers which rise under the wings, being in 
this of a fine red, and that instead of the long wire 
feathers in the tail it has two curious appendages re- 
sembling flat pieces of polished whalebone. This 
specimen is believed to be the only one ever brought 
to England. 

Black Bird of Paradise (Paradisea Furcata). 

' The Grand Hoopoe (Latham's Synopsis, vol. 2, 
page 695.) 

(Le Grand Promerops d paremens f rises, Buffbn, 
vol. 4, page 472.) 

This magnificent bird is thus described by Mr. La- 
tham : — *' This most extraordinary and beautiful 
'' bird is near four feet in length from the tip of the 
*' bill to the end of the tail ; the body is the size only 
'' of a middling pigeon, though much elongated in 
" shape. The bill is three inches long, pretty much 
" curved, and black ; the head, hind part of the neck, 
*' and upper part of the belly, are of a shining green ; 
'' the rest of the plumage, on the upper parts, black, 
'^ mixed with a gloss of changeable violet, but the 
" wings, in some lights, appear blue; the fore part 
" of the neck, and lower part of the belly, without 
" gloss. The scapular feathers are of a singular con- 
" struction, the webs on one side of the shaft being ex- 
*' ceedingly short, and on the other of a great length; 
** the shape of them falciform ; they are of a purplish 
" black colour, with the ends for three quarters of 
" an inch of a most brilliant, gilded, glossy green. 



56 

'' though some of them in a different hght reflect 
*^ a blue gloss; beneath each wing rises a thick tuft 
*' of feathers eight inches and a half in length, and 
" of a texture resembling the herring-bone ones in 
*' the greater Bird of Paradise." 

A Pair of New Holland Birds of Paradise (P. 
Parkinsonia) ; one presented by the Countess of Li- 
verpool, the other by Dr. Smith, President of the 
Linnsean Society. 



CUCKOWS (CUCULUS). 

This Collection contains nearly 40 species of thiss 
family. The habits of the common Cuckow are 
well known, and may serve to give a general idea of 
most of them. They are scattered over most parts 
of the world, some of them are of fine plumage, as 
the Cupreous, which is an inhabitant of the hottest 
parts of Africa, where however it is rare : the rich 
metallic glossy green with which the whole upper 
parts are covered, can only be equalled by the 
glowing tints of the Humming Bird. 



WOODPECKER (PICUS). 

The birds of this genus climb up and down trees 
in search of insects, which they transfix and draw 



37 

t)ut from the clefts of the bark by means of the 
tongue, which is bony at the end, barbed, and fur- 
nished with a curious apparatus of muscles for the 
purpose of throwing it forward with great force. 
They build in decaying and dead trees, which they 
perforate with their hard, wedge-shaped bill. Their 
feet are very strong, having the toes placed two be- 
fore and two behind, and in climbing are assisted by 
the strong pointed feathers of their tail : some of 
them are found in England. There are upwards of 
forty in this Case, in which are also a few of the 
next genus in the Linncean arrangement, the Nuthatch 
(Sitta), whose mode of life are much like the Wood- 
pecker, from which they differ in having the toes 
placed three before and one behind. 



KING-FISHER (ALCEDO). 

The birds of this family vary much in size ; some 
of them are very splendid in their plumage, in which 
bright blue is the colour that predominates in the 
whole tribe. They mostly frequent rivers, and feed on 
fish, which they catch with much dexterity : they 
swallow their prey whole — their wings are short, yet 
they tly with great swiftness. The only one found 
in this country is the common King-fiahcr (Alcedo 
Ispida). 



58 

The Greeks celebrated this h'wd by the name of 
Alcyon, OY Halcyon; the epithet y^/cyo^iiftw was appli- 
cable by them to the four days before and after the 
winter solstice, when the sun shone brilliantly, the sky 
serene, and the sea smooth and tranquil. It was then 
the timorous mariners of antiquity ventured to lose 
sight of shore, and shape their course on the glassy 
main. The King-fisher is the most esteemed of Bri- 
tish birds for the brilliancy of its colours. It nestles 
on the banks of rivers and brooks, in holes made by 
water-rats. Gessner observes, that it can never be 
tamed, and that it is always wild. Its flesh has the 
odour of bastard musk, and is very unpalatable food ; 
its fat is reddish; its stomach roomy and flaccid, as 
in birds of prey ; and like them too it discharges by 
the bill the undigested fragments, scales, and bones, 
rolled into little balls. 

In the same Case are a few of Jaccmiars (Galbula), 
the plumage of some of which partakes of the metallic 
lustre of the Humming Bird. 



BEE-EATERS (MEROPS). 

The birds of this genus are mostly natives of the 
Old Continent, few being found in America; but the 
discovery of New Holland has brought us acquainted 
with a number of species that were unknown to us be- 
fore. Their general food is said to be insects, and 



59 

that they build their nests in holes on the banks of 
rivers in the same manner as the King-fisher, to which 
they seem much allied. 

The European Bee- Eater (Merops Apiaster), is a 
native of many of the warmer parts of Europe, but 
is rarely seen in the British dominions. It is extremely 
common in Greece, and the islands of the Archipe- 
lago; and in Crete is most plentiful. It is in this 
latter island that the curious mode of bird-catching, 
described by Bellonius, is said to be frequently prac- 
tised with success, viz. a cicada is fastened on a bent 
pin, or a fish-hook, and tied to a long line. The in- 
.sect, when thrown from the hand, ascends into the 
air, and flies with rapidity ; the Merops, ever on the 
watch, seeing the cicada, springs at it, and swallowing 
the bait, is thus taken by the Cretan boys. 



CREEPERS (CERTHIA). 

These birds bear a strong resemblance to the Hum- 
ming-Bird as to size and the varied tints of glossy 
colouring, but the legs are always longer, and the bill 
in general more bent and sharper at the point. They 
are likewise dispersed over every part of the world, 
while the Humming Birds are confined to America. 

Their food is insects, which they find under the bark 
of trees. The common Creeper (Certhia Famili- 

12 



60 

aris) of this country, is an example (says that excel- 
lent Ornithologist, Dr. Latham) of the facility with 
which they run in every direction on the smoothest 
tree, like a fly on a glass window. 



HUMMING BIRDS. 
(Trochilus.) 



Say, who can paint 
Like Nature ? Can Imagination boast, 
Amid her gay creation, hues like these ? 

Thomson.' 



This Case contains nearly 100 various Humming 
Birds, and is allowed to be the finest collection in Eu- 
rope : such as are known have their names in the 
order they stand in the system of Linnaeus. Of all 
animated beings (says BufFon) the Fly Bird is the 
most elegant in form, and superb in colours. The 
precious stones, polished by art, cannot be compared 
to this jewel of nature. Her miniature productions 
are ever the most wonderful j she has placed in it the 



61 

order of birds, at the bottom of the scale of magni- 
tude ; but all the talents that are only shared amongst 
the others, she has bestowed profusely on this little 
favourite. The emerald, the ruby, and the topaz, 
sparkle in its plumage, which is never soiled by the 
dust of the ground. It is inconceivable how much 
these brilliant birds add to the high finish and beauty 
of the western landscape. No sooner is the sun 
risen, than numerous kinds are seen fluttering 
abroad : their wings are so rapid in motion, that it 
is impossible to discern their colours, except by their 
glittering ; they are never still, but continually visit- 
ing flower after flower, and extracting the honey. 
For this purpose they are furnished with a forked 
tongue, which enters the cup of the flower, and 
enables them to sip the nectared tribute; upon this 
alone they subsist. In their flight they make a buz- 
zing noise, not unlike a spinning wheel j whence 
they have their name. 

The nests of these birds are not less curious than 
their form : they are suspended in the air at the ex- 
tremity of an orange branch, a pomegranate, or a 
citron tree, and sometimes even to a straw pendant 
from a hut, if they find one convenient for the pur- 
pose. The female is the architect, while the male 
goes in quest of materials, such as fine cotton, moss, 
and the fibres of vegetables. The nest is about the 
size of half a walnut. They lay two eggs at a time, 
and never more, in appearance like small pease, as 
white as snow, with here and there a yellow speck. 
The time of incubation continues twelve days, at the 
end of which the young ones appear, being then not 
larger than a blue-bottle fly. " I could never per- 
*• ceive (says Father Dutertre) how the mother fed 
** them, except that she presented the tongue co- 
*' vered entirely with honey extracted from flowers." 
Those who have tried to feed them with syrups could 



62 

not keep them alive more than a few weeks; these 
ahments, though of easy digestion, are very different 
from the deHcate nectar collected from the fresh blos- 
soms. It has been alleged by various naturalists, 
that during the winter season they remain torpid, 
suspended by the bill from the bark of a tree, and 
awakened into life when the flowers begin to blow; 
but these fictions are rejected ; for Catesby saw them 
through the year at St. Domingo and Mexico, where 
nature never entirely loses her bloom. Sloane says 
the same of Jamaica, only that they are more nume- 
rous after the rainy season ; and prior to both, Marc-^ 
grave mentions them as being frequent the whole 
year in the woods of Brazil. — The method of obtain- 
ing these minute birds is to shoot them with sand, or 
by means of the trunk-gun; they will allow one to 
approach within five or six paces of them. It is easy 
to lay hold of the little creature while it hums at the 
blossom. It dies soon after it is caught, and serves 
to decorate the Indian girls, who. wear two of these 
charming birds as pendants from their ears. The 
Indians, indeed, are so struck and dazzled with the 
brilliancy of their various hues, that they have named 
them the Btains, or Locks of the Sun. Such is the 
history of this little being, who flutters from flower 
to flower, breathes their freshness, wantons on the 
wings of the cooling zephyrs, sips the nectar of a 
thousand sweets, and resides in climes where reigns 
the beauty of eternal spring. 



65 



BUCKS (ANAS). 



We are now arrived at the third Order in the Lin- 
najan classification, called Jnseres. The whole of the 
birds in this order have webbed feet, and reside prin- 
cipally on the water. 

These Cases contain upwards of forty species of the 
genus Anas, or Duck, many of them of the larger 
size. 

The Black Swan (Anas Atrata), of New Holland ; 
the Canada Goose (A Canadensis), and the Egyptian 
Goose (A. -S^gyptiana), lived some time in the 
Queen's Menagerie at Frogmore, and were graciously 
presented to the Museum by her Majesty, to whose 
condescension I am indebted for many of the fine 
subjects of Natural History in my collection. 

The Spur-winged Geese (Anas Gambensis), male 
and female ; and the highly curious, non-descript 
species, having a very high crest-like protuberance, 
the whole length of the upper mandible : they were 
lately sent from the interior of Africa, on the banks of 
the Gambia, by M. De Bonay, of Senegal, by whose 
exertions this collection has been considerably en- 
riched, by the addition of many extremely curious 
and hitherto unknown Quadrupeds and Birds. 

In these Cases are also the Lobated Duck of New 
Holland (Anas Lobata), so called from the fleshy 
appendage attached to the under mandible ; and the 
G2 



64 

Chinese, or Mandarine Duck (Anas Galerlculata), 
perhaps the most beautiful of the whole genus, as 
well as nearly every species found in this country. 



MERGANSER (MERGUS). 

Crested Merganser (Mergus Cucullatus), male and 
female ; remarkable for their large globular crest : 
they are natives of North America. 

The Goosander (Mergus Merganser). 

X)eivdiver (Mergus Castor). 

ThQ Smeiv, or White Nun, (Mergus Albellus). 

The Minute Mergus (Mergus Minutus). 



WATER FOWL (ANSERES). 

Little Auk (Alca Alle). A rare British bird. 
Paiagonian Penguin (Aptenodytes Patachonica). 

This highly curious bird seems to form the con- 
necting link between the feathered and scaly race. 



65 

It is upwards of three feet in height; its fin-like legr^ 
being placed at the extreme end of its body, it can 
stand in no position but quite upright ; in place of 
wings it has two dangling flaps, which when in the 
water serve as fins, but are of no use on-shore, as it is 
totally incapable of flight ; it seldom conies to land, 
but for the purpose of depositing its eggs; it is then 
so easily taken, that Capt. Cook says, a man might 
kill with a stick, in a few hours, as many as would 
load a large boat. 

Link Penguin (Aptenodytes Minor). Inhabits New 
Zealand. 

Crested Penguin (Aptenodytes Chrysocome). 

Black Darters (Anhinga Melanogaster). 

These are natives of the lakes and rivers of Brazil ; 
they live chiefly on fish, which they take by darting 
forward the head, whilst the neck is contracted like 
the body of a serpent. Mr. Abbot, the naturalist, 
of Savannah in America, says that he examined a 
nest that had two eggs and six young, of three differ- 
ent sizes, which he believes belonged to different fe- 
males. They are extremely difficult to shoot, keep- 
ing the head only above water. 

The Black Ski?nmer (Rynchops Nigra). 

Is remarkable for its singular bill, the lower mandi- 
ble of which projects considerably beyond the upper, 
into which it fits like a razor in its handle. It in- 
habits America and Asia, and is continually flying 
about and skimming over water, out of which it 
scoops small fish with its oddly projecting bill. 



K 



66 



PETREL (PROCELLARIA). 



These birds may with great propriety be called in- 
habitants of the ocean ; they are met with at the 
greatest distance from land, and seem to walk, rather 
than fly, on the surface of the most tempestuous 
billows, never approaching the shore except in the 
breeding time : the nostril is furnished with a long 
tube, through which they spout a quantity of pure 
oil to a considerable distance, in the face of the per- 
son who disturbs them. They are said to feed on 
the dead fat of the whale and other large fish. 

The Storiny Petrel, or Mother Care/s Chicken (Pro- 
cellaria Pelagica) is sometimes found on our coast, 
and I have known several instances where they have 
been picked up dead in the inland counties : they 
sometimes follow the wake of a ship, but on these oc- 
casions are always unwelcome visitors to the mariner, 
who considers their presence as a certain prognostic 
of an approaching storm. 

The Snoivy Petrel (Procellaria Nivea). 
Inhabits the colder parts of the South Seas. 

The Grei/ Petrel (Procellaria Grisea), male and 
female. 

Pintado Petrel (Procellaria Capensis). 

Shear -tvaier Petrel (Procellaria Pufhnus), a native 
•f this country. 



67 

The Wandering Albatross, or Man-of-tvar Bird, 
(Diomedea Exulans). 

This bird is frequently mentioned by navigators, as 
being met with several hundred leagues from land ; 
in its figure and manner it bears a strong resemblance 
to the Gulls, but is of such an extraordinary size as 
to measure 1 3 feet from the tip of one wing to the 
other.*— Presented by the Marquis of Buckingham. 



PELICANS (PELICANUS). 



The whole of these are extremely expert in catch- 
ing fish, and are sometimes tamed for that purpose, 
when their labours amply repay their keeper for the 
trouble of their education. 

The Great White Pelican (Pelicanus Onocrotalus)^ 
is a native of Asia, Africa, and South America ; it 
is five feet long, of a white colour, slightly inclining 
to rosy; it is said to build its nest in dry sandy 
deserts, where it carries water in its immense pouch 
for its young, from which probably arose the fabulous 
account of their feeding their young with their blood, 
and of their being made an emblem of parental aiiec- 
tion by the ancients. 

The Lesser Frigate Pelican (Pelicanus Minor). 

The length of this bird is about two feet eight 
inches^ the extent of wing more than seven feet; 



68 

the colour, sooty black ; the pouch or gullet, bright 
scarlet. Perhaps none of the feathered tribe con- 
tinue so much on the wing as this ; they are met 
with at sea, at an immense distance from any land, 
and generally flying very high. 

Red-faced Shag (Pellicanus Uriel), from Kanit§- 
chatka. 

Corvorant (Pellicanus Carbo). 

Shag (Pellicanus Graculus). 

Tufted Shag of the Bass Island. 

Two of these birds, both females, were shot by 
myself on the 9th of May, 1807, on the Bass Island, 
in the Frith of Forth, where they are believed to breed 
and remain the whole year ; the general appearance, 
both in size and colour, was nearly similar to the 
common Shag, and the number of tail feathers the 
same ; the most striking difference arises from a sin- 
gular tuft of forty-six narrow and nearly straight 
feathers, two inches long, standing close together up- 
right, with a slight bend forward on the front of the 
forehead, in so remarkable a way as at once to dis- 
tinguish it from any described species. The origin 
of the lower mandible, and the naked pouch under 
the throat, was of a bright yellow, approaching to 
orange, with small spots of black ; the i rides, a beau- 
tiful grass green, and it had no bare space round the 
eyes; the ovaries of both specimens contained a num- 
ber of small eggs, and from the account of the person 
who takes the young Gannets at the Bass, and who 
possesses considerable knowledge of the birds that 
visit it, there can be little doubt of its being a new 
species, and of its rearing its young in the inaccessible 
precipices of that island ; and it is somewhat sur- 
prising that it should have remained so long unnoticed 




Koiixift 



^^r,/ . //.r,/ . 



Tub. <fl- fFBiiIL'c'k.LondtniMuainiJiicaJiKy, Jpiil xjHi^. 



69 

in the neighbourhood of so many naturalists and or» 
nithoiogists as Edinburgh contains : the flesh was 
eaten, and found to be entirely destitute of that rancid 
smell and taste that aftect the generaHty of the cor- 
morant tribe. I have observed, what appeared to me 
to be the same species, on Lambay Island, on the 
east coast of Ireland. 

Gannets, or Sola.id Geese (Pellicanus Bassanus). 

This beautiful species of Pelican is diffused over 
most parts of the ocean, but seldom approaches th^ 
land except at the breeding season ; it received its 
trivial name from its frequenting, in immense quan- 
tities, the Bass Island, in the Frith of Forth, on the 
east coast of Scotland. In the spring of 1807, 
I visited this celebrated rock (once the state prison of 
Scotland), accompanied by Arthur Strickland, Esq. 
of York, for the purpose of procuring specimens of 
the various water-fowl that annually resort to it at 
that season of the year for security, during the im- 
portant business of rearing their young. 

We arrived under the towering and tremendous 
projecting cliffs of the east end, just before sunrise, 
and approached as silent as possible. At a little 
distance, the precipice appeared as if composed of 
chalk ; but on a nearer approach, we discovered that 
this effect was produced by the excrement, as well as 
by the white plumage of the innumerable water-fowl 
that covered the cliffs. The whole of the various 
families were just awake, and preparing, by shaking 
their feathers and pluming their wings, for the busy 
occupation of the coming day. After attentively 
observing them for some time, on a given signal we 
fired our guns, and the boatmen shouted altogether, 
when such a scene took place as I had never wit- 
nessed : in an instant our ears were assailed and 



70 

deafened by the varied and continued cries of at least 
100,000 birds — Gannets, Cormorants, Shags, Puffins, 
Razor-Bills, Gulimots, and the various kinds of Gulls, 
raised their discordant notes at the same moment, and 
by their numbers formed a canopy over our heads 
that darkened the air, while their excrement, oc- 
casioned by the sudden alarm we had put them in, 
fell in a thick shower on every side. After the con- 
fusion had somewhat subsided, we proceeded to the 
west end of the island, and ascending to the summit, 
found ourselves above the cliffs, where the Gannets 
were sitting, close to each other, on their eggs. We 
crept cautiously down amongst them, and so attentive 
were they to their occupation of sitting, that it was 
with difficulty they could be forced from their eggs, 
though at other times they are extremely shy. — - 
They lay but one egg, which is perfectly white, and 
in shape and size nearly resembles that of a croco- 
dile ; it is placed on the bare rock, surrounded by a 
circle of wet sea-weed, which is constantly replenish- 
ed by the male as it becomes dry. I had been told, 
but doubted the fact, that during the time of incu- 
bation the female holds the egg in her foot : this 
I found to be the case. 

In a visit I made in the August following, the 
young were many of them gone ; but still I had an 
opportunity of examining them in their different 
ages, previous to their leaving the island. When 
first produced from the egg, they are black and very 
ugly ; in a few days they become covered by a 
resplendent white down ; in about a month after- 
wards, their first feathers begin to appear ; tliey are 
black the first year, spotted with white the second, 
and on the third attain their mature plumage. The 
specimens in the regular progression, taken at that 
time, are in the Museum. 



71 



GULLS (LARUS), 



AND 



TERNS (STERNA). 

The Birds in this Case are principally natives of 
the shores of this country, breeding in the rocks on 
the sea coast in considerable numbers. Like many 
of the sea fowl, they do not arrive at their perfect 
colour for three years, which makes it difficult to 
determine their species. 

The Herring Gull (Larus Fuscus), lived in Frog- 
more Park nearly two years, and was presented to the 
Museum by the Queen. 

The Black-toed Gull (Larus Cripidatus), is a rare 
British bird ; shot in Lincolnshire. Presented by Sir 
Joseph Banks, 



SPOONBILLS (PLATALEA). 

Tlie bill of this remarkable species is long, and 
toward the extremity spread out in a spoon -like 
form. The White one (.Platalea Leucorodea), was 



■72 

formerly not very uncommon in this island j but since 
the introduction of fire arms, and the improvement 
that has gradually taken place in the art of shootings 
they have, with other birds then found in plenty, 
left this country for others more retired. 

• The Roseate Spoonbill (Platalea Ajaja), is a native 
of South America. 



JABIRU (MYCTERIA). 

American Jahiru (Mycteria Americana). 

This extraordinary and majestic bird is nearly six 
feet long ; it inhabits the extensive marshes of South 
America, feeding on fish, which it devours in large 
quantities ; it builds its nest in trees which hang over 
the water, and lays two eggs. Presented by Lord 
Teisnmouth. 

SenegalJahiru (Mycteria Senegalensis). 

Measures upwards of six feet from the bill to the 
toes ; it is the only one known in this country -, it 
was first described, from an imperfect specimen, by 
Br. Shaw, in the 5th volume of the Linnaean Trans- 
actions. It was lately received from the ri\ er Gambia, 
and presented, with several other rare and valuable 
birds of Africa, by Henry Brogden, Esq. 

Anon-descript species oi-Jabiru, the native country 
unknown ; it lived some time in a state of confine- 
^lent iu Exeter 'Change, and was fed with fish. 



73 

CRANES, No. 1. 
(Ardea). 

^Nmnidian Crane, or Demoiselle (Ardea Virgo). 

This beautiful bird has received the name of De- 
ttioiselle, or Miss, on account of its elegant form, its 
rich garb, and its affected airs. It was famous amongst 
the ancients, though it was little known or seen in 
Greece or Italy. „ 

A large species of Crone y from New Holland j 
seems nearly allied to Ardea Antigone of Linnaaus, 
Length, five feet nine inches; breadth of the wing> 
six feet three inches ; general colour, bluish ash, ex- 
cept the quills and chin, which are black ; top of the 
head without feather, ash colour; the regions of the 
eyes and back of the neck covered by a carunculated 
skin of bright vermilion colour. Presented by Dr. 
Munro, jun. who received it from New Holland, 
where it was killed by Dr. Jamieson. 

Great White Heron (Ardea Alba). 

Green Heron (Ardea Virescens). 

Cinereous Herons, male and female. 



74 



CROWNED CRANES. 



Pair of Crowned African Cranes (Ardea Pavonia). 

These owe their title of Royal to a sort of crown 
which decorates their head. They inhabit Africa, es- 
pecially Gambia, the Gold Coast, and Cape Verd, 
They are of a gentle and pacific disposition ; tlieir de- 
fence is their stature, and the rapidity with which 
they run and fly. They are less afraid of man than 
of their other enemies: we are assured, that at Cape 
Yerd these birds are half domesticated, and that they 
come into the court-yards to eat grain with the Gui- 
nea fowls. Their cry is like ifte peacock's. The Portu- 
guese, in the 13th century, it is supposed, were the 
first people that brought these birds into Europe, at 
the time they discovered the Gold Coast. 

In the bottom of this Case is the Bull Frog of 
America (Rana Maxima). 



BITTERNS (ARDEA). 

Agami Heron (A. Agami). 

Is a beautiful bird, inhabiting the swamps of Cay- 



75 

The Striated Heron is likewise from Cayenne, and, 
when closely examined, has much beauty of plu- 
mage. 

Tiger Bittern [A. T\^\'mz.). ■* 

Remarkable for the strong contrast of its rich co- 
louring, which resembles the animal from which it is 
named. 

Little Bittern (A. Minuta). Shot in England, 
where it has lately been several times killed. 

Minute Bittern (A. Ex i lis). 

The smallest of the genus, only eleven inches 
long : from Monte Video. 

White Stork (A. Ciconia). 

Was formerly an inhabitant of this island ; is still 
plentiful in Holland, where it is protected by very 
severe laws. 

Common Heron (A. Major). 

Great Egret (A. Egretta) . 

Little Egret (A. Garzetta). 

This very beautiful bird was formerly very com- 
mon in England. 

Blue Heron (A. Coerulea). 

Squacco Heron (A. Comata). 

Snowy Heron ^A. Candidissima). 

Malacca Heron (A. Malaccensis). 

Bittern (A. Stellaris). 



L2 



76 



IBIS (TANTALUS). 



Sa&red Ibis. This remarkable Bird, which is the 
first exhibited in this country, has just been received 
from Africa, and lately described by a French natu- 
ralist as the celebrated sacred bird of the Egyptians 
(the identity of which has long been disputed) ; and 
there is every reason to believe it to be the species of 
■which the Mummies, in the bird pits at Saccarra, are 
composed. 

It has been examined at the house of Sir Joseph 
Banks with the most perfect Mummy known, in which 
the feathers are still entire, and the result left no 
doubt on the minds of the Gentlemen present, of its 
being the true species of Ibis, held sacred and pre- 
served by the antient Egyptians. See the Mmimi/ 
near it. 

The Glossy Ibis (T. Igneus). 

This was lately killed in Wales. It was likewise 
shot a few years since in Lancashire. 

Egyptian Ibis (T. Ibis). 

This large species is what most naturalists have 
considered "as the sacred ; but on examination with 
those Mumn.ies that have come under my observa- 
tion, I find it much longer, and the bill very different 
from any of them. 

Scarlet Ibis ( Tan t al us Ruber ) . 
Inhabits the borders of the great lakes and rivers 
0f South America. The colour of the whole bird. 



77 

except the tips of its wings, which are black, is 
bright scarlet. It feeds on small insects and crabs, 
and will breed in a domestic state, 

Broion Ibis (T. Fuse us). 

Mack-faced Ibis (T. Melanopis). 



CURLEWS (SCOLOPAX). 

Common Curlews (Scolopax Arquata), with its nest 
and eggs, taken on the moors between Edinburgh 
and the falls of the Clyde. 

The young one was kept alive for some time; its 
food was small pieces of raw flesh ; the bill, at their 
exclusion, is little larger than our domestic fowls, 
and it is not till the bird is nearly at its growth that 
it attains any considerable length. 

In this Case are a number of the Scolopax genus, 
some of which are rare. 

Sand-pipers (Tringa). Many of these are natives 
of our own shores, where they run in quest of their 
food with amazing celerity, uttering at the same time 
a sharp, shrill cry, — whence their name. 

Amongst the most remarkable is the 

Ruf (T. Pugnox). Its British name is taken from 
the remarkable feathers that stand upon its neck and 
shoulder. They are taken in large quantities in the 



7S 

spring, in the fens of Lincolnshire, and fattened on 
bread and milk for the London markets: owing to the 
strong propensity of the males to fighting, they are 
obliged to be kept in the dark, 

Grej/ Phalarope (T. Lobata). 

Red Phalarope {T. Hypetborea). 

Little Sand-piper (T. Pusilla). The three last are 
among the most rare of the British birds. 

In this Case are likewise the Avocettas (Recuvi- 
rostra) and two species of Oijster Catchers (Hemato- 
pus). 



PLOVER (CHARADRIUS;. 

A number of rare, and several new species of this 
genus of Birds are in this Case : those known are 
labelled. 



PARRA (JACCANA). 

In this Case are several species of these birds, re- 
markable for the extreme size of their feet, and the 
sharp spurs with which the shoulders of some of 



79 

them are armed. They are natives of the warmer 
parts of India, Africa, and America^ and in their 
manner much resemble the Rail, of which there are 
>^veral in the same Case. 



BUSTARD (OTIS). 

The Gteat Bustard (Otis Tarda) is the largest of 
our land birds, weighs 25ft). ; is now become exceed- 
ing rare, and will probably, in a few years, be lost to 
©ur country, owing to its size, and the avidity with 
which it is sought after, as well as to the circumstance 
of many of its former haunts being inclosed. 

Little Bustard (Otis Tetrax). 

This rare species of British bird was lately killed 
in Berkshire. It is a female, the other sex being 
very seldom met with in this country. 

Near these are a pair of Nondescript Bustards; 
lately presented by Major Johnson, of Calcutta. 



OSTRICH (STRUTHIO). 

Black Ostrich (S. Camelus). 

A young specimen not having attained its complete 
plumage. In the Menagerie of Mr. Polito, at Exe- 
ter 'Change, is now^ living a most superb bird of 
this kind, perhaps the finest ever brought to Europe ; 
it reaches 1 1 feet in height. 



80 

Cassoivarj/ (Scolopax Casuarius). 

Fine specimen of the male and female of this 
highly curious bird. 

Great Emea, or Neiv Holland Cassowary (S. Nova 
Hollandia), upwards of 7 feet high. 

Lesser Emea, not half the size of the above, and a 
distinct species. 

American, or Three-toed Ostrich (S* Rhea). 



CURASSOWS (CRAX). 

Crested Curassoivs (Crax Alector). Male and fe- 
male. 
^^. Inhabits Surinam and other warm parts of South 
^America; its size is nearly that of a turkey; the 
male is black, but in the female the feathers of the 
head and neck are black and white, and the whole of 
the body is a rich mixture of fine cream-colour and 
black ; the head is ornamented with an erect crest, 
each feather being bent a little forward, which gives 
the bird a very majestic appearance. They are do* 
mesticated in South America, and are said to be 
excellent food. 




Mib.hy TITBullifclf ,Zo»don Museinn J^ccadiK.v.Apriliidis 



81 



PHEASANTS (PHASIANUS). 

Argus Pheasant, or Ltien (Phasianus Argus). 

This superb and majestic bird was first described 
by Edwards, in the 55th volume of the Philosophi- 
cal Transactions, who says, " It is the largest of 
*' the pheasant genus yet known, being in size equal 
" to a full-grown turkey/* The wings and tail are 
besprinkled with a multitude of round spots like eyes ; 
whence it has received the name of Argus. The fea- 
thers in the middle of the tail are very long, and 
project much beyond the rest. (A much loager, and 
equally beautiful feather, of an unknown species of 
Chinese Pheasant, five feet long, is in the same 
Case.) Its head is covered with a double crest. It 
has been doubted whether this bird had not originally 
more than two long tail-feathers; this, however, on 
examination of the rump, seems never to have been 
the case. Mr. Pennant describes it as having spurs 
like the common cock, but this also appears to be 
an error; for this bird, although a male, and of full 
growth, has not the slightest appearance of them. — 
This extraordinary bird, Vkith its wings extended, 
measures eighteen feet in circumference. It is a na- 
tive of the North of China. 

Golden Ph&asant of China (Phasianus Pictus). 

Of the brilliancy with which nature so often deco- 
rates the feathered tribe, the Golden Pheasant is one 
of the most striking examples; a bird of which the 
colours are so powerfully lucid, as to dazzle in a full 
light the eyes of tlie spectator, and can only be ex- 
ceeded by the poli&lied lustre of the Humming-bird: 

M 



82 

fven the Peacock himself, with all his gaudy plu- 
mage, falls short ill the comparison. This splendid 
bird is now bred in this country, and will stand our 
winters tolerably well. 

The female was presented to the Museum by her 
Majesty. 

The Ringed Pheasant (P. Colchicus var.) — Pre* 
sented by the Bishop of Salisbury. 

A pair of Bohemian Pheasants, presented by Lady 
Reade, who was the first person that succeeded in 
breeding this species in England. 

Wild Cock of India, or Jungle Cock (Phasianus 
varius). 

This beautiful bird is supposed to be the parent, or 
original stock of all the varieties of our domestic 
poultry. 

African Pheasant (P. African us). 

Crested Pheasant (P. Cristatus). 

A beautiful pair of Silver Pheasants (P. Nyctheme- 
rus). Presented by the Bishop of Durham. 

White Guinea Foxvl (Numidia Meliagris, var.) Re- 
ceived from Russia. 



WOOD GROUSE, OR CAPERCAILE 

(Tetrao Urogallus). 

The male of this noble species of Game is nearly 
as large as a turkey, but the female is considerably 
smaller. They were formerly found in Ireland and 



83 

Scotland, but are now believed to be extinct, as I 
hear of no authentic account of any having been 
met with for several years. 

They are now found in various parts of the Old 
Continent, principally in the northern, in the large 
pine forests ; and many of them are sent every win- 
ter from Sweden to London, and used at the tables of 
the great, being by many considered a luxury, 
although they are said to taste strong of the pine 
buds on which they feed. 



BRITISH GAME. 

Pair of Red Grouse (Tetrao Scoticus). 
Pair of the Black Grouse (Tetrao Tetrix). 
Pair of the Ptarmigan (Tetrao Lagopus). 

The White Hare (Lepus Variabilis). 

This species are Ibund on the northern hills of Eu- 
rope, Asia, and America, from whence in ihe winter 
they migrate to the phiins in troops, and return in 
spring. The limbs and tail are shorter than the com- 
mon hare : they change from a reddish grey to white 
in the winter, except the tips of the ears, which are 
black. 



M2 



84^ 



PARTRIDGES, No. 3 (TETRAO). 

A great variety of the birds of this genus from all 
parts of the world are contained in this Case, many 
of them extremely rare, and some new among them 
are the Spotted Grouse (Tetra Canadensis). Male and 
female. 

Finnated Grouse (Tetrao Cupido). 

Hazel Grouse, Male and female (Tetrao Bonafia). 

Tied Legged Partridge (Tetrao Rufas). 

Fearl Partridges y Male and female (Tetrao Perlatus). 

Senegal Partridges (Tetrao Bicalcaratus). 

Maryland 2uail (Tetrao Marilandus). 

Crested Quail (Tetrao Cristatus). 

And the Common Sluail (Tetrao Coturnix). 

The Common Partridge, and Young, beautifully 
preserved, under a large glass shade. 



PIGEONS (COLUMBA). 

In this Case are a great variety of the Pigeons and 
Do7)ts from almost every part of the world, with 



S5 

their names affixed to them. Among the most re- 
markable, is the 

Croivned Pigeon (Columba Coronata). 

The gigantic size of this species, which is not far 
short of a turkey, has caused some naturalists to place 
it rather among the gallinaceous tribe than in the ge- 
nus Columba. Its characters are however so clearly 
and decisively marked, as to declare at once hs pro- 
per genus. It is undoubtedly one of the most elegant 
of birds, and is a native of the Molucca Islands. Its 
voice resembles that of the Wood Pigeon, but in so 
loud and hoarse a tone, that it is recorded of some 
of Mons. Bougainville's sailors, that they were great- 
ly alarmed on hearing it for the first time in the unfre- 
quented spots of some islands on which they landed ; 
supposing it to have proceeded from the savage cries 
of hostile and concealed natives. This bird is fre- 
quently br.ought to Europe alive, and is considered 
as one of the greatest ornaments of the menagerie. 
The above bird was presented to the Proprietor, with 
other articles, by her Royal Highness the Princess 
Charlotte of Wales. 

The Bronc^ed-icinged Pigeon (C. Chalcoptera). 

Is a beautiful species, inhabhing New Holland; the 
covert of its wings exhibiting all the prismatic co- 
lours on a metallic ground. 

The beautiful Whiie Fan-tailed Dove was presented 
by her Majesty, who received it from Walchercn. 

Larks (Alauda) and Starlings (Sternus). 

The birds of these families are not so numerous as 
many of the smaller kinds. In this Case all that have 
been collected are properly named. 



86 



THRUSHES (TURDUS), 



AND 



CHATTERERS (AMPELIS). 



This Case contains about 40 species of the Thrushes 
and Chatterers, The first are not remarkable in ge- 
neral for the splendour of plumage, though some 
strong exceptions will be observed in this collection ; 
but the richness of their melody makes ample amends. 
One species, the Mocking Bird of America (Turdus 
Polyglottus), deserves particular notice ; without any 
exterior attractions, it possesses faculties which ren- 
der it one of the greatest objects of curiosity and ad- 
miration among the feathered tribes. It is about the 
size of a Thrush. Its natural notes are musical and 
solemn ; but it likewise possesses the singular power 
of assuming the tones of every other animal, whe- 
ther quadruped or bird. It seems to divert itself with 
alternately alluring or terrifying other birds, and to 
sport with their hopes and their fears. Sometimes it en- 
tices them with ihe call of their mates, and on their 
approach terrifies them with the scream of the eagle, 
or some other bird of prey. It frequents the habita- 
tions of mankind, and is easily domesticated; it builds- 
its nest in the fruit trees, near the houses of the plan- 
ters j and sitting sometimes most of the night on the 



87 

teps of their chimnies, assumes its own native melo- 
dy, and pours forth the sweetest and most varied 
strains. The savages call it Cenconttatolli, or Four 
Hundred Languages. It is found in Carolina, Ja- 
maica, New Spain, &c. In Jamaica, it is very com- 
mon in the Savannahs, where it perches on the high- 
est tree to chaunt its song. 

The Glossy Thrush (T. ^neus.) 

Is a magnificent species, near 18 inches long, of 
the most shining and vivid colour, which changes as 
seen in different lights. 

The Chatterers are mostly natives of South Ame- 
rica, and remarkable for the rich and varied tints of 
their feathers. 



GROSBEAK (LOXIA), 

AND 

BUNTINGS (EMBERIZA). 

About seventy birds of the above species are col- 
lected together in this Case, all properly named. The 
Grosbeaks feed principally on hard seeds, which their 
strong bills enable them easily to open. Many of 
them are inhabitants of the cold parts of Europe and 
America. 



The Buntings are likewise seed birds, and have a 
tooth- like process in the upper mandible, which 
enables them to split their food with great facility. 
In this genus are included the several species of 
Whidah Birds, remarkable for their elegance and great 



length of tail. 



TANGER (TANAGRA), 

AND 

FINCHES (FRINGILLA). 

About eighty of these are contained in this Case, 
The Tanagers are mostly natives of South America, 
and no family of birds exhibit a greater diversity of 
splendid colours. Ti^ey, as well as the Finches, feed 
on grain and seed, and are often troubiesonfte and de- 
structive to the plantations, in whose neighbourhood 
they abound. Many of these are not yet described. 



FLY-CATCHERS (MUSCICAPA). 

The birds of this genus are perhaps more univer- 
sally dispersed over every part of the globe than any 
other. Their food is entirely insects, which, but for 



89 

the multitudes that are consumed by them, would 
render some countries unfit for human residence : 
about one hundred species are described^ 



WARBLERS (MOTACILLA). 

This genus is more numerous than any other of 
birds. Dr. Latham, in his excellent work, *' The 
general Synopsis of Birds," describes one hundred 
and ninety-eight species. The major part of them 
inhabit the warmer countries, where insects, their 
proper food, abound. They are in general not re- 
markable for gaiety of plumage, but their melody 
amply compensates for their deficiency in that 
respect. 

The Nightingale (Motacilla Luscina), though com- 
mon in this country, never visits the northern parts 
of our island, and is seldom seen but in the neigh- 
bourhood of London and the western counties. The 
following description of the varied song of this unri- 
valled bird, is taken from the ingenious author of the 
Hisioire des Oiseaux: — ** The leader of the vernal 
'' chorus begins with a low and timid voice, and he 
*' prepares for the hymn to nature by essaying his 
" powers and attuning his organs ; by degrees the 
" sound opens and swells, it bursts with loud and 
** vivid flashes, it flows with smooth volubility, it 
" faints and murmurs, it shakes with rapid and vio- 
" lent articulations 3 the soft breathings of love and 
N 



90 

" joy are poured from its inmost soul, and every 
** heart beats in unison and melts with delicious 
*' languor. But this continued richness might satiate 
*' the ear ; the strains are at times relieved by 
*' pauses, which bestow dignity and elevation. The 
" mild silence of evening heightens the general 
'' effect, and not a rival interrupts the solemn scene." 
They begin to build in May. 



MANAKIN, TITMICE, and SWALLOWS. 

(Pipra). (Parus). (Hirundm). 



The Manaklns, at first sight, resemble the next ge- 
nus, or Titmice, They are mostly natives of South 
America, and are in general beautiful in their co- 
lours. The most remarkable species is the Cock of 
the Rock, or Crested Manakin (Pipra Rupicola). 
Though this bird is of an uniform orange colour, it 
is one of the most beautiful of South America. They 
are found in great numbers on the mountain Luca, 
near Oyapoc, and on the mountain Courouaye, near 
the river Aprouack. They are esteemed for the sake 
of their plumage, and are very scarce and dear ; be- 
cause the savages, either from superstition or fear, 
will not venture into the dark caverns where they 
lodge. 



91 

The Titmice are a very active and fertile race, lay- 
ing from eighteen to twenty eggs at one hatch. They 
feed on fruit, seeds, and insects, and a few on flesh ; 
most of them are fond of the brains of other birds, 
which they get at by cleaving the skull of such as 
they find dead. Several are natives of Britain, and 
are an extremely entertaining bird in captivity, but 
are dangerous to introduce into an aviary, on account 
of their cruelty and boldness. 

The natural history of the Swallow is extremely in- 
teresting, and has been the cause of much contro- 
versy among authors 3 but we are still in much doubt 
respecting their manners and habits. A few species 
visit this country in the summer, and skim over moist 
and wet places in search of insects, which they dex- 
terously take on the wing. 



GOATSUCKERS (CAPRIMULGUS). 



The birds of this family (the last in the Linnaean 
arrangement) have their mouths of extraordinary 
size, opening far beyond the eyes, which enable 
them to take large insects on the wing. They sel- 
dom appear in the day time, except when disturbed, 
or in dark cloudy weather. They lay two eggs, 
which they deposit on the naked ground. The voice 
of the European one resembles the noise made by 
a large spinning wheel. 

N2 



92 

Among a number of these birds, is that highly 
curious species the Sierra Leone Goatsucker (Capri- 
mulgus Longipenis), presented by A. Haworth, Esq. 
of Chelsea. 



Birds in separate Cases, not numlei'ed, lut each 
having a reference to the Page in this Cata* 
logue, in which they are described. 



Northern Divers (Colymbus Glacialis). Male and 
female. 

The largest of the Divers measures three feet and 
a half in length. It is sometimes shot on our coast. 

Horned Screamer (Palameda Cornuta). 

This extraordinary bird is of the size of a large 
turkey : from the front of the head rises a sharp 
horn, about four inches long, and each joint of the 
wings is furnished with an extremely strong spur, 
triangular and very sharp ; those on the shoulder 
being nearly as large as a man's finger : they inhabit 
the fens of South America, and are always found in 
pairs, feeding on seeds and reptiles. The female 
makes a nest on the ground, of mud, shaped like an 
oven, and lays two eggs. 



93 

White-bellied Boat-bill (Cancroma Cancrophaga). 

The bill of this bird, in shape, resembles the bot- 
tom of a boat with the keel upwards. It is a native 
of South America ; perches on trees which overhang 
the water, and darts down on the fish as they swim 
underneath. 

Barbari/ Partridges, male and female (Tetrao Ru- 
fus). 

Beautifi;tlly preserved, and placed under a glas^ 
shade op aa elegant bronze tripod * presented by her 
Majesty. 



94. 



AMPHIBIOUS ANIMALS. 

" Were ev'ry falt'ring tongue of man, 

" Almighty Father ! silent in thy praise, 

" Thy works themselves would raise a general voiee; 

" Even in the depth of solitary woods, 

'* By human foot untrod, proclaim thy power." 

MllTON. 



TOUTOISE (TESTUDA). 

Common Tortoise (Testudo Graeca).' 

This animal is considered as the most common of 
the European species, and is a native of almost all 
the countries bordering on the Mediterranean Sea. 
It lives to a most extraordinary age, instances being 
adduced of its having considerably exceeded the 
period of a century. 

Geometrical Tortoise (Testudo Geometrica). 

From its strong and well contrasted colours, and 
regularity of pattern, the present species is more 
readily distinguishable at first view than most others 
of this perplexing tribe. The native country of this 
beautiful tortoise is perhaps not truly known ; though 
the shell is more frequently seen in Europe than that 
of any other kind. 



95 

Close Tortoise (Testudo Clausa). 

The Close Tortoise obtains its name from the un- 
usual manner in which the under part of the shell is 
applied to the upper, being continued in such a manner 
round the margin, that when the animal withdraws 
its head and legs, it is enabled accurately to close all 
parts of the shell entirely together, so as to be in 
a complete state of security ; and so strong is the de- 
fence (says Shaw, in his Zoology) of this little animal, 
that it is not only uninjured by having a weight of 5 or 
600Hbs. laid upon it, but can walk in its usual manner 
beneath the load. It is a native of many parts of 
North America, being chiefly found in marshy places. 
It is principally sought for on account of its eggs. 
It feeds on beetles, mice, and even serpents, which 
it seizes by the middle, and draws into its shell, and 
thus crushes them to death. 

Concentric Tortoise (Testudo Concentrica). 

This species is a native of North America, and is 
sold in the market of Philadelphia and elsewhere, by 
the name of Terrapin, it is an inhabitant of waters, 
and is said to be a wholesome and even delicate food. 
It is also found in Jamaica. 

Snap or Snake Tortoise (Testudo Serpentina). 

This species, first described by Linnaeus, appears 
to have been obscurely known. It is a native of North 
America, where it inhabits stagnant waters, growing 
to the weight of 15 or 20tbs. and preying on fish, 
ducklings, &c. Whatever it seizes in its mouth, it 
holds with great force, and will suffer itself to be rais- 
ed up by a stick rather than quit its hold. This ani- 
mal conceals itself In muddy waters, in such a man- 
ner as to leave out only part of its back, like a stone 
or other inanimate object, by which means it the 



96 

more easily obtains its prey. In New York, it is called 
the Snapping Tortoise. 

It was kept alive in the Museum upwards of eight 
months, during which time it never tasted food. It 
possessed a most amazing strength, carrying 200tfes. 
without any apparent inconvenience. Its disposition 
was exceedingly fierce. 

Logger-head Turtle (Testudo Caretta). 

This Turtle exceeds in size every other knowB 
species. It inhabits the same seas with the Green 
Turtle, but is also difiused into very remote latitudes, 
being often found in the Mediterranean, and about 
the coasts of Italy and Sicily. In a commercial 
view, it is of little value ; the flesh being coarse and 
rank, and the plates of the shell being too thin to be 
of use. It is a strong, fierce, and eveii dangerous 
animal. 

Several Tortoises, unknown. 

The Indian Tortoise (Testudo Indica). 

This is the largest known species of the Land 
Tortoise, the shell being upwards of three feet long, 
and six feet in circumference. In this specimen the 
tubercles on the fore part of the shell are wholly 
wanting. 

The Fimbriated Tortoise (Testudo Fimbriati). 

This is one of the larger species, and most extra- 
ordinary in its appearance ; it inhabits the rivers of 
Cayenne and Guiana. 



97 



LIZARDS (LACERTA), 



This Case contains fifty-one species of Lizards, 
beautifully preserved, and displayed on an artificial 
rock, so as to exhibit them in their various attitudes, 
and convey an idea of their haunts and mode of 
life : the greater part of them being named, we shall 
only mention those whose history and habits are 
known and remarkable. 

Two specimens of the Flying Dragon (Draco 
Volans). 

This very extraordinary species of Lizard is a 
native of Asia and Africa. " The very name (says 
*' Dr. Shaw) conveys to the mass of mankind the 
" idea of some formidable monster, and recalls to the 
" imagination the wild fictions of romance and poe- 
" try; but the animal distinguished by that title in 
" modern natural history, is a small, harmless Li- 
" zard."" It is about ten inches long, and furnished 
with large expansible wing-like membranes, which 
enable it to spring to a considerable distance in quest 
of its prey ; it has a pouch under the throat of a 
singular appearance, and is altogether different from 
every other creature. 

A young Crocodile (Lacerta Crocodilus). 

This sometimes attains the length of 25 to 30 feet, 
and is of great swiftness, voracity, and strength, 
roars hideously, and devours men, and other large 
animals. 



9S 

A Crocodile from the Island of St. Thomas, differ- 
ing considerably from the common one. 

The Gangetic Crocodile (Lacerta Gangetica). 
A very young specimen ; grows to the length of 
30 feet. 

The Alligator (Lacerta Alligator). 

This animal bears so near a resemblance to the 
Crocodile, that many naturalists have considered it 
as a mere variety, rather than a distinct species. — 
Catesby says, the largest and greatest number of 
Alligators inhabit the Torrid Zone. They frequent 
not only the salt rivers near the sea, but stre.ims of 
fresh water in the upper parts of the country, where 
they lie lurking among the reeds to surprise cattle and 
other an inrdlij. In Jamaica, and many parts of the 
Continent, they are found about twenty feet in length. 
They cannot be more terrible in their aspect than 
they are foimidable and mischievous in their nature, 
sparing neither man nor beast they can surprise, 
pulling them down under water to drown them, that 
they may with greater facility and without struggle 
or resistance devour them. As quadrupeds do not 
often come in their way, they almost always subsist 
on fish. Thl> destructive monster can neither swim 
nor run any way than straight forward, and is con- 
sequently disabled from turning with that agility 
requisite to catch his prey by pursuit ; therefore they 
do it by surprise in the water as well as by land. 
The Alligator is supposed to be a long-lived animal, 
and its growth is extremely slow. 

Dragon Lizard (Lacerta Dracana). 
Is a native of South America, and measures two 
feet four inches in length j it is a harmless animal. 






|fh ^^^'^"^1 




99 

and much esteemed as an article of food, though to 
persons unaccustomed to see it, presents a formida- 
ble appearance. 

The Iguana (Lacerta Iguana). 
Though the Lizard tribe affords numerous exam- 
ples of strange and peculiar forms, yet few specie* 
are perhaps more eminent in this respect than the 
Iguana, which grows to a very considerable size, and 
is often seen the length of from three to five feet. It 
is a native of many parts of America and the 
West India Islands, inhabiting rocky and woody- 
places, and feeds on insects and vegetables ; is 
reckoned excellent food, being exceedingly nourish- 
ing and dehcate ; but observed to disagree with some 
constitutions. The common manner of catching it.is 
by casting a noose over the head, and thus drawing it 
from its situation ; for it seldom makes an effort to 
escape, but stands lookmg intently at its discoverer, 
inflating the throat at the same time in an extraordi- 
nary manner. Iguanas are sometimes salted and bar- 
relled up for use in Jamaica and other West India 
islands, in considerable quantities ; may easily be 
tamed while young, and in that state is both an inno- 
cent and beautiful creature. The larger one in this 
Case lived some time in the stove of the Liverpool 
Botanic Garden, but never was observed to take 
food ; but was easily irritated, at which time ii pufted 
up the pouch under the throat in an extraordinary 
manner ; and on the near approach of dogs, to which 
it seemed to have an aversion, suddenly struck 
them forcibly with the tail, but was never known to 
bite. 

Several Chameleons (Lacerta Chamseleon). 
Few animals have been more celtbialed by na- 
tural historians than the Chamaeleon, which has been 
02 



100 

jjometime* s-aid to possess the power of changing its 
coiouf at ple-asure, and of assimilating it to that of any 
particular object or situation. This, however, must 
be received with great limitations ; the change of co- 
lours which this animal exhibits varying in degree, 
according to circumstances of health, temperature of 
the w eather, and many other causes, and consisting 
chiefly in a sort of alteration of shades, from the na- 
tural greenish or bluish grey of the skin into pale 
yellowish, with irregular spots or patches of dull red. 
The Chamaeleon is a creature of a harmless nature, 
and supports itself by feeding on insects, for which 
purpose the structure of the tongue is finely adapted, 
consisting of a long missile body, furnished with a 
dilated and somewhat tubular tip, by means of which 
the animal seizes insects with great ease, darting out 
its tongue in the manner of a Woodpecker, and re- 
tracting it instantaneously with the prey secured on 
tlie tip. It can also support a long abstinence, and 
hence arose the idea of its being nourished by air 
a.lone. Is found in many parts of the world, atid 
particularly in India and Africa, and also in Spain 
and Portugal, One that was kept alive in Liverpool, 
was regularly fed with sugar and bread, atid appeared 
to have ati afliictiou for the person who had the care 
of it. Its change of form was as remarkable as that 
«f colour. 



101 



LIZARDS (L.\CERTA), No. 2. 



A very fine specimen of the American Iguana ; 
presented to the Museum by Lady Cox Hippesley. 

The African Iguana, 

The 31onitor Lizard (Lacerta Monitor). 

The Monitor Lizard is one of the most beautiful of 
the whole tribe, and is also one of the largest, some^ 
times measuring not less than four or live feet from 
the nose to the tip of the tail. This elegant animal 
is found with little variation in Sou[h America, New 
Holland, and x\frica, where it fre<^utrnts woody and 
watery places ; and if credit may be given to the re- 
ports of some authors, is of a disposition as gentle as 
its appearance is beautiful. It has gained the name 
of Monitor, from its supposed attachment to the hu- 
man race, and has been said that it warns mankind 
of the approach of the Alligator, by a loud and shrdl 
whistle. 

The Galliii'asp (Lacerta Occidua). 

The Galliwasp is a native of the American Islands, 
and seems to be particularly common in Jamaica, 
where it is said to frequent woody and marshy dis- 
tricts. The Galliwasp (according to Brown, in his 
Natural History of Jamaica) is reckoned the most ve- 
nomous reptile in that island, and it is said that no 
creature can recover from its bite : but this he very 
properly considers merely a popular error. This ani'- 
Miai is not noticed by Linngeus. 



102 



The Great Boa (Boa Constrictor). 

By those who are unacquainted with the wonders 
of nature, the descriptions given by naturalists of 
some of the more striking and singular animals are 
received with a degree of scepticism, or even rejected, 
as exceeding the bounds of credibility. Amongst 
these animals may be numbered the prodigious ser- 
pents which are sometimes found in India, Africa, 
and America; seipents of so great a size as to be able 
to gorge even some of the largest quadrupeds, and of 
so enormous a length as to measure upwards of 
thirty feet. There is reason to believe, that these im- 
mense serpents are become less common than they 
were some centuries back ; and that in proportion as 
cultivation and population have increased, the larger 
species of noxious animals have been expelled from 
the haunts of mankind. They are, however, occasi- 
onally seen, and sometimes approach the plantations 
nearest to their residence. It is happy for mankind 
that these serpents are not poisonous ; thty are there- 
fore to be dreaded only on account of their size and 
strength, which latter is so great as to enable them to 
kill cattle, deer, and other animals, by writhing them- 
selves round them, so as to crush them to r'eath by 
mere pressure ; after which they swallow them in a 
very gradual manner ; and when thus gorged with 
their prey, grow almost torpid with repletion : and if 
discovered in this state, may without diflTiculty be 
dispatched. — These enormous serpents are natives of 
Africa, India, the Indian Islands, and South America, 
where they inhabit marshy and woody places. Tliere 
are several species of the Boa in this collection, one 
of which is considered by naturalists, in respect to 



^- "n 




".V 



^.W' 



/t* 



^-T-^ 



103 

beauty of colour, size, or preservation, to be the 
finest specimen ever brought into this country ; 
measuringthirty-twofeetin length, and two feet seven 
inches in circumterence, and is preserved in the act 
of destroying a deer, which is crushed, and expiring 
in the enormous folds of its merciless enemy. 

[I have retained the generic name of Boa; but on 
examination of all the species that I have seen^ they 
prove to belong to the Genus Coluber.] 



SERPENTS (SERPENTES). 



This Case contains thirty-seven different Serpe?its, 
finely prepared, and exhibited in their natural posi- 
tions, with the English and Linnaean names attached 
to them. 



Serpents^ No,,2, 

A young specimen of the Boa Constrictor, 

Striped Rattle Snake (Crotalus Durissus). 

The Rattle Snake is the most poisonous of rep- 
tiles that inhabit America. The most conspicuous 
distinction this animal bears from all other of its spe- 
cies, is the rattle, which makes so loud a noise while 



104 

the creature is in motion, that its approach may be 
known, and danger avoided. Many naturalists are of 
opinion, that this Snake acquires an additional bone 
to the rattle every year ; from the number of v^hich 
bones, the precise age of the Snake may be known. 
Catesby, in his History of Carolina, says, " the 
*' Rattle Snake is the most inactive and sluggish of 
" animals, and is never the aggressor, except upon 
" what he preys; for unless disturbed he never bites, 
** and when provoked gives warning by shaking 
" his rattles, so that a person has time to es- 
*' cape." It is said that this Snake has the power 
of charming or fascinating small animals within 
reach, which it devours. Squirrels and birds are its 
principal prey, and no sooner do they spy the Snake 
than they skip from bough to bough, and approach 
by degrees nearer to the enemy, regardless of any 
danger, until they enter the extended jaws that are 
open to seal their ruin. Bartram observes, that some 
Indian nations never kill the Rattle Snake, or any 
other species, alleging as their motive, that it 
would influence its living kindred to revenge the inju- 
ry or violence done to it when alive. The flesh of 
the Rattle Snake is said to be much relished, even 
by Europeans. 

Spectacle Snake, or Cohra de Capello (Coluber 
Naja). 

The Coluber Naja, or Cobra de Capello, is a na- 
tive of India, where it appears to be one of the most 
common, as well as the most noxious of the serpent 
tribe ; very frequently proving fatal in the space of a 
few minutes to those who unfortunately experience 
its bite. In India it is exhibited as a shew, and is of 
course more universally known in that country than 
almost any other of the race of reptiles. It is carried 



105 

about in a covered basket, and managed by the pro- 
prietors in such a manner, as to assume a dancing 
motion at the sound of a musical instrument. The 
Indian jugglers, who thus exhibit the animal, de- 
prive it of its fangs, by which they are secured from 
}ts bite. 



106 



FISHES. 



See thro' this air, this ocean, and this earth. 
All mntter quick, and bursting into birth ; 
Above how high progressive life may go, 
Around how wide, how deep extend below ! 
Vast chain of being, which from God began, 
Nature's ethereal, human, angel, man, 
Eeast, bird, fish, m?ect, what no ej'e can see, 
Ko glass can reach ; from infinite to rhee. 
From Thee to nothing ! 



Coryphene, or Dolphin (Corypliaena Hippuris). 

The Dolphin is an inhabitant of the Mediterra- 
nean, Indian, and Atlantic seas, where it often ap- 
pears in larjj,e shoals, and is sometimes observed to 
follow ships, devouring with avidity any occasional 
article of food which may happen to be thrown over- 
board ; it will even swallow substances of a diflerent 
nature : and we are informed, from the authority of 
Plumier, that in the stomach of one which he exa- 
niined, were found four iron nails, one of which mea- 
sured more than five inches. When taken out of the 
water, the beautiful colours (with which the fish is 
decorated when living) fade as it expires; the lus- 
tre vanishing by degrees, till at length it becomes of 



107 

a dull grey colour. This gradual evanescence of 
colour in the dying Coryphene is contemplated by 
sailors with as much delight as the Romans are said 
to have exhibited on viewing similar changes m the 
expiring Mullet, when brought to their tables before 
the feast began. The Coryyjhene is a strong and vi- 
gorous fish, and swims with great rapidity. It is 
perpetually engaged in the pursuit of smaller fishes, 
and is considered as one of the most cruel persecutors 
of the Flying Fish. The flesh is said to be excellent. 

Flying Gurnard (Trigla Volitans). 

This highly singular and beautiful species is a na- 
tive of the Mediterranean, Atlantic, and Indian seas, 
where it swims in shoals, and is often seen flying out 
of the water, in the same manner as the Flying Fish 
Exoccetus. In its native element^ the colours of 
this fish are extremely brilliant. It is crimson 
above '; pale, or of a white colour underneath. The 
pectoral fins are extremely large, transparent, of 
an olive green, richly varied with numerous bright 
blue spots. The tail is pale violet, with the rays 
crossed by dusky spots, and strengthened on each 
side the base by two obliquely transverse bon}^ ribs 
or bars. 

Small Saiv Fish (Pristis Antiquorum). 

The Saw Fish is a species of Sharif, growing to the 
length of fifteen feet or more ; is an inhabitant of 
the Mediterranean and Northern seas, and was 
known to the ancient writers by the name of Pristis. 

Striped Chcetodon (Chaetodon Striatus). 
This fish is a native of the Indian and AraericaH 
seas. 

Sparrus. Unknown, 

P2 



lOS 

Poraipine Fish (Diodon Hystnx). 

In point of habit or external appearance, the re=» 
markable genus Diodon may be siiid to connect in 
some degree the tribe ot fishes with that of the spiny 
quadrupeds, such as the porcupines and hedge-hogs; 
it is also allied in a similar manner to the Echini, or 
Sea Urchins. The Diodon Hystrix, commonly termed 
the Sea Porcupine, is said to afford an amusing sight 
when taken by a iine and hook, baited by a species 
of crab : after seizing the bait, by a sudden spring, 
on finding itself hooked, it exhibits every appearance 
of violent rage, inflating its body, and elevating its 
spines to the highest possible degree, as if endeavour- 
ing to wound in all directions; till after having tired 
itself by its vain efforts, it suddenly expels the air 
from its body, and becomes flaccid for some time : 
but when drawn towards the shore, redoubles its 
rage, and again inflates its body ; in this state it is 
left on the sand, it being impossible to touch it with- 
out danger till it is dead. It is a native of the Indian 
and American seas, and is considered as a coarse fish, 
but is sometimes eaten by the inhabitants of the 
West Indian Islands. 

Loph ius. — Unk nown . 

Torpedo Raj/ (Raja Torpedo). 

The Torpedo has been celebrated both by ancients 
and moderns, for its wonderful faculty of causing a 
numbness or painful sensation in the limbs of those 
who touch or handle it. The shock or sensation 
given by this Ray is attended with all the effects of 
that produced by the electrical machine, so far as 
experiment has hitherto enabled us to discover. Al- 
though this fish does not appear to be furnished with 
any striking exterior qualities; although it has no 
muscles formed for great exertions, nor any internal 



109 

conformation differing from the Ray kind ; yet such 
are the wonderful powers it possesses, that in an in- 
stant it can pan'.yse the hand or body that touches it, 
and cause for a while a total suspension of the mental 
I'aculties. Reaumer has by several experiments at- 
tempted to demonstrate, that it is not necessarily, but 
by a voluntary effort, that the Torpedo benumbs the 
hand that touches it. On every trial he could readily 
perceive when it intended to give the stroke, and 
when it was about to continue inoffensive. In pre- 
paring to give the shock, it flattened its back, raised 
Its head and tail, and then, by a violent contraction in 
the opposite direction, struck with its back against 
the finger that touched it; and its body, which before 
was flat, became round and lumped. It is said, that 
the negroes can handle the Torpedo without being 
affected ; and we are told the whole secret of securing 
themselves from its bite consists in keeping respira- 
tion suspended at the time. The electrical power, 
however, is known to terminate with the life of the 
animal, and when dead, it is handled or eaten with 
perfect safety. It is an inhabitant of the Northern, 
European, and the Mediterranean seas. 

Sea Horse (Syngathus Hippocampus). 

The Hippocampus is a fish of a highly singular 
appearance. In its dry Or contracted state, this ani- 
mal exhibits the fancied resemblance from which it 
takes its name ; but in the living fish, this appearance 
is somewhat less striking, the head and tail being car- 
ried nearly straight. It is a native of the Mediter- 
ranean, Northern, and Atlantic seas. A finer speci- 
men of this species of Pipe-fish is in another place, 
under a glass ; and one of a more curious form, the 
Foliated Pipe-fish. 

Five-raj/ed Star-jish (Asterias Layigataj. 



lio 

Carved Asterias (Asterias Toreuma). 
Is a native of the Indian seas, and is found of 
various sizes, from one to six inches in diameter. 

Enormous Crab^s Claw, measuring in the hfoadest 
part upwards of ten inches in circumference. 



FISH. 



Lon^-finned Chcetodon (Chaetodon Teira). 

Tliis curious fish is a native of the Indian and Ara- 
bian seas, and is' said to arrive at a considerable 
size. 

Harlequin Angler (Lophius Histrio). 

This species is a native of the Indian and Ameri- 
can seas, growing to the length of ten or twelve 
inches, and in manners resembles the European An- 
gler. Monsieur Kenard, in his History of Fishes, 
affirms, that he knew an instance of an individual of 
tliis species kept for three days out of water, and 
which walked about the house in the manner of 
a dog. 

Young Frog-fish, or Angler (Lophius Europaeus). 

The Frog-fish is remarkable for its uncouth ap- 
pearance. The one under consideration is an inha- 
bitant of the European seas, where it sometimes 



Ill 

arrives at a great size. It is observed to frequent 
shallow parts of the sea, lying in ambush, covered 
with weeds and mud, in such a manner, that the 
smaller fishes, deceived by its tentacula, or long 
processes on the head, by their resemblance to 
worms, on attempting to seize them become a prey 
to the Lophius. 

Beaked Angler, or Bat-fish (Lophius Rostratus). 
A native of South America ; it preys upon small 
fishes and worms. 

Remora, or Sucking-fish (Echeneis Remora). 

This fish has the power of adhering to whatever it 
comes in contact with, in the same manner as a cup- 
ping glass adheres to the human body. It is by such an 
apparatus that this fish sticks to the body of a shark, 
drains away its moisture, and produces a gradual 
decay. It is found principally in the Mediterranean 
and Atlantic seas, where it grows to the length of 
about eighteen inches. 

The Bon^'scaled Pike (Esox Osseus). 

This is a fish of considerable size, and of very 
remarkable appearance, being covered with strong 
bony scales, disposed in long oblique rows, which 
give it the appearance of being carved out of a 
solid piece of ivory. It is a native of the fresh 
water lakes and rivers of America, and the flesh is 
said to be excellent. 

Lump S^wcAer (Cyclopterus Lurapus), 

Pavonian Sucker (Cyclopterus Pavonius). 
This beautiful fish was caught in the river Mersey, 
near Liverpool, 



112 

^rmed Loricaria (Loricaria Catafracta). 
Found in the American seas. 

Yelloxu Loricaria (Loricaria Flava), 



FISH. 



Slender Vistularia, or Trumpet-fish (Fistularia Ta- 
bacaria). 

This very remarkable fish ig a nntivp of the Ame- 
rican seas, and subsists on the smaller fishes, sea- 
insects, and worms. 

Oceanic Flying-fish (Exocaetus Evolans), 
The fishes of this genus, which are few in number, 
are remarkable for the extreme length and size 
of their pectoral fins, by which they are enabled to 
spring from the water, and support a kind of tem- 
porary flight or continued motion through the air, to 
the distance of 2 or 300 feet ; when the fins become 
dry, they are obliged to commit themselves to their 
own element. The fish here described is ap inha- 
bitant of the American and Indian seas, and is occa- 
sionally observed in the Mediterranean. Pennant 
records an instance of its being seen about the British 
coasts. The celebrated Bonnet considered this spe- 
cies of fish as forming a kind of connecting link be- 
tween fishes and birds, similar to that which bats may 
be supposed to form between birds and quadrupeds. 



113 

Ijusher Bullhead (Cottus Scorpius). 

This fish is an inhabitant of the Mediterranean and 
Northern seas ; is said to be plentiful about the 
coast of Greenland, where it is esteemed good food. 
It is a strong fish, swimming with rapidity, and 
preying on smaller fishes; and is said to live a con- 
siderable time out of the water, having a power of 
closing the gill covers in such a manner as to exclude 
the etVect of the atmospheric air. When caught, if 
held in the hand, it emits a strong and peculiar 
sound by the expulsion of air through its mouth ; 
during this action the mouth is opened to the utmost 
width, the pectoral iins are strongly expanded, and 
the whole body is agitated by a vibrating or tremu- 
lous motion. 

Hare-mouth Globe- Fish (Tetrodon Lagocephalus). 

This genus, like the Diodoii, has the power of 
inflating its body at pleasure. Is an inhabitant of 
the Indian and American seas, but occasionally strays 
into the northern latitudes, and has been taken, ac- 
cording to Pennant, about the British coasts, 
near Penzance in Cornwall, 

Round Diedon, Sea Hedge-hog (Diodon Orbicu- 
laris). 

Lamprey (Petromyzon Marinus). 

This fish has long held its place at the tables of 
the luxurious, having always formed a part of the 
splendid feasts of our ancient nobility. King Henry I, 
lost his life by too great an indulgence of this his fa- 
vourite dish. In the early part of the year they are 
met with in great numbers in the river Severn, when 
they are potted in large quantities, and sent to Lon- 
lion. 



Q 



lU 

The Hammer.headed Shark (Squalus Zygaena). 

This is a very voracious and deformed animal, and 
difliirs from that of any otlier known creature; they 
sometimes attain the length of fifteen feet, and are 
natives of the Mediterranean and Indian seas. 

Angel Fish^ or S/tark (Squalus Squatina). 

Jacksonian Sluuk (Squalus Jacksonii). 
This is a new species, lately discovered in the har- 
bour of Port Jackson. 

Horned Trunk-Fish (Ostracion Cornutus). 

Young Shark (Squalus Carcharias). 

The Shark is as formidable in appearance as he 
is dreadful for his courage and activity. No fish 
can swim so fnst, fnr fii- will nntstrifi thf swiftest 
ship. " They are (says Mr. Pennant) the dread of 
'* sailors in all hot countries, where they constantly 
*' attend the vessels, in expectation of what may 
** drop overboard : a man that has that misfortune 
" perishes without redemption ; they have been 
*' seen to dart at him, like gudgeons at a worm.*' 
They aie said to attack Negroes in [^reference to 
Europeans, and to attend with assiduity the slave 
ships from Africa to the West Indies. The Shark 
i^rows to an enormous size, sometimes thirty feet in 
length. 

y<mng Stwgeon (Acipenser Sturio). 

Inhabits the Europoan, Mediterranean, Red, Black, 
and Caspian seas, and annually descends the rivers 
in spring. It is a fish of slow movement, is very 
prolific. Its flesh is held in great estimation. 

Frog-Fish (Lophius Europa?us). Taken in the 
river Mersey. 



115 

insects/ 

(Insecta.) 



Each moss, 



Each shell, each crawling insect, holds a rank; 
Important in the plan of Him who form'd 
This scale of beings; holds a rank, whichlost 
Would break the chain, and leave a gap 
That Nature's self would rue ! 



Ill this Case is a brilliant display of the Insect tribe, 
consisting of a selection of about 500 of those most 
remarkable for their beauty of colours, extraordinary- 
form, or singularity of manner or economy. A bare 
recitation of the names of this very numerous class 
would add but little to the information or pleasure of 
the general reader, and would increase the size and 
expence of this Catalogue unnecessarily : we shall 
therefore give only those best known or most remark- 
able. 

Hercules Beetle (Scarabaeus Hercules). 

The Beetle herg described is a native of the island 
of Guadaloupe ; on the continent of New Spaini 
this species is said to be often seen of very large 
dimensions. The horn of this species is toothed above 
on each side, and beneath it is covered with a sub- 
stance resembling yellow plush ; the proboscis below 
is also toothed. Between these, it is said, the insect 
takes the smaller branches of trees, and by swiftly 
Q2 



116 

flying round soon saws them off, for the purpose of 
building its nest. The teeth cut away the wood, and 
the piush part serves to brush away the saw-dust. 
Dr. Shaw, however, in his INaturahst^s Miscellany, 
says, that on a narrow inspection of the proboscis of 
this Beetle, it will appear no ways calculated for 
the sawing olF branches fronfi the trees ; he reckons 
therefore the whole operation as a vulgar error. It 
is a very mischievous animal^ and exceedingly 
difficult to be taken. It measures seven inches in 
length. 

Act(Bon Beetle (Scarabaeus Actseon). 
This is the largest of insects, except the Crabs and 
Monoculi. It is a native of South America. 

Stag Beetle (Lucanus Cervus). 

This is found in England in decayed trees. 

Patch-winged Diamond Beetle (Curculio Splen- 
dens). 

Diamond Beetle (Curculio Imperialis). 

There are several species of these, which, 
with the above, are natives of South America ; and 
perhaps the whole insect race does not display more 
splendour or richness ; it may be truly said, that 
" Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one 
'' of these.'* 

Ceicmihi/x Giganteus. The body of this extraordi- 
nary insect is nearly six inches long. It is a native 
of Cayenne, — and very rare. 

The Giant Mantis (Mantis Gigas). 

Prauing Mantis (Mantis Oratoria). 

Most of the genus Mantis, and this species in 



117 

particular, are held sacred by the natives of the 
country they inhabit. From the singular inaiaier in 
which it raises tlie upper part of the body arid fore 
legs, it is supposed to point out the way t > trcuellers 
that have lost their road. Many of the Mi'utis so 
strongly resemble leaves, that at first sight they 
can scarcely be known. 

Great Locust (Gryllus Giganteus), 

African Locust (Gryllus Capensis). 

Elephant Locust Gryllus Elephas). 

Of all insects which are capable of adding to the 
calamities of mankind, by devouring the products 
of the earth, Locusts seem to possess the most formi- 
dable powers of destruction. Legions of these vora- 
cious creatures are from time to time produced in the 
"various parts of Africa, and the eastern wo?-id, 
where the havock they commit is almost incredible, 
changing in a few hours the most fertile plains into 
an appearance of a desart ; nay, even when dead, 
they are terrible, since the putrefaction which arises 
from their inconceiveable numbers is such, that it 
has been regarded as one of the principal causes of a 
pestilence. The largest species of these insects are 
used as an article of food, and in many markets of 
the Levant they are publicly sold. The female is 
regarded as a very nutritious sustenance, and is much 
sought after. 

Great Lanthorn Fly (Fulgora Lanternaria). 

This highly curious insect is a native of South 
America ; from the large, hollow, transparent pro- 
jection in front of the head it emits a sufficient light 
for persons to read by ; and travellers are said to be 
directed on their journey by night, by fixing one or 
two of them on a stick. 



lis ; 

Common Cicada (Cicada Plebia). 

The Cicada, so often commemorated by the an^ 
tient poets, and so generally confounded by the ma- 
jor part of translators with the Grasshopper, is a 
native of the warmer parts of Europe, and is parti- 
cularly plentiful in Italy and Greece. The commont 
Cicada appears in the hottest summer months, and 
continues its shrill chirping during the greatest part 
of the day, sitting amongst the leaves of trees. 

Atlas Moth (Phalsena Atlas). 

This is by much the largest of Moths, measuring 
nine inches across the wings : it is a native of the 
East Indies and South America. 

Great Black Wasp of Pensylvania. 

This Wasp supplies itself with food by rov- 
ing about the meadows, catching grasshoppers and 
other insects ; on ihese it feeds, and not on fruits, as 
other Wasps do : but what is more remarkable, is 
the method of making their nests, and providing 
for their young. With great pains and industry they 
scratch an horizontal hole near an inch diameter 
and a foot long, in the steep side of a bank of loamy 
earth ; then away the Wasp flies, and catches a large 
grasshopper, and lodging it in the farther end of the 
nest, there she lays an egg, and then goes and catches 
two more, and deposits them with the other, then 
plasters up the hole. The Q^g soon produces a mag- 
got : these grasshoppers are, by marvellous instinct, 
provided for its food, until it changes into its pupa 
state, in which it lies for a certain period, and then 
eats its way out, and flies away, seeking its mate. 
What may deserve our farther attention is, the won- 
derful sagacity of this creature, not only in catching 
these large grasshoppers, though bigger than itself^ 
which are like ours, and are very strong and nimble^ 



119 

but their peculiar skill is to be admired in disabling 
them, either by bite or sting, so as not to kill them ; 
for then they would soon putrefy, and be unfit for 
nourishment. Life sufficient is left to preserve them 
for the time the maggot is to feed upon them. The 
sting of this wasp is painful, but dees not swell like 
others. 

The Female, or Queen of the Termites, or White 
Ant (Termes Fatale). 

Mr. Smeathman, who resided many years in 
Africa, has, in the 71st volume of the Philosophical 
Transactions, given a beautiful and interesting ac- 
count of the manners, instinct, and wonderful eco- 
nomy of these extraordinary animals, which, from 
their immense number, and power of annoyance, are 
the greatest pest of that country. — To detail the 
whole of their habits and mode of life would require 
a volume : the instinct of the Common Ant, the Bee, 
or the Beaver, are trifling when compared with these. 
Though little larger than the Common Ant, their 
buildings, from the number, closeness, and magnitude, 
often appear like the villages of the natives ; and 
the depredations they commit render them truly for- 
midable : nothing but metal or glass can escape the 
destroying fangs of these minute invadets. The one 
in this collection is a pregnant Queen, the general 
mother of the whole community, and is a thousand 
times heavier than the male, or King, who is conside- 
rably larger than the labourer or soldier. — Mr. 
Smeathman's description of this Ant has been copied 
in Dr. Winterbot ham's Account of Sierra Leone, and 
the 2d volume <3f Wood's Zoography, page 446. 
A model of the Nest of these remarkable insects, 
nine feet high, is in the Pantherion. 

The Bird-catching, or Great Surinam Spider (Ara- 
nea Avecularia). 



J 20 

The insect above-mentioned is the largest of all 
the spiders, measuring from eight to ten inchecj in 
the extent of its legs, which are covered with 
rough hair : it is not uncommon in many parts of 
Souih America. It resides amongst thii trees, and 
seizes on sm.ill birds, particularly Humming Birds, 
which it destroys by sucking their blood, after 
having first wounded them by its fangs. This Spider 
has eight eyes, which are disposed somewhat in the 
form of an oblong square ; two are perfectly round, 
the others are of an oval shape. 

Tarantula Spider (Aranea Tarantula), with its cu- 
rious Nest. 

This is the animal of which such long accounts 
have been given of the wonderful and melancholy 
effects arising from its bite, which is represented 
to be cured only by music, which caused the 
patient involuntarily to dance in the most violent 
manner; but the whole account being clearly proved 
to have existed in vulgar error, is not now worth 
repeating. The nest is highly curious from its re- 
markable structure ; it is cylindric, with a valve or 
door, which the animal opens and shuts every time it 
enters; the manner in which this is performed, as 
well as the creature itself, is described by the elegant 
pen of Darwin, in his Zoonomia. 

African Scorpion (Pcorpio Afcr). 

There are several species of Scorpions in this col- 
lection, but none of them so remarkable, either for 
size or malignity of poison, as the above, which is 
near nine inches long, and armed in front by strong 
claws, resembling those of some species of crab ; 
but its poisonous sting is situated at the end of the 
tail, in which may be observed the reservoir for sup- 
plying it with the fatal fluid, and the minute holes 



121 

on each side of the sting, through which it is injected 
into the wound. 

Great Centipede (Scolopendra Morsitans). 

This is Hkewise a native of the hottest parts of the 
world, and one of the pests of society, being highly- 
poisonous ; but what renders it particularly dange- 
rous is, its frequenting inhabited places, and biting 
persons during their sleep, to prevent which, they 
are obliged to place the feet of their bedsteads in 
Water ; it measures twelve inches in length. 



12^ 



SHELLS (CONCHOLOGY). 



This department has just been added, and consists 
of an extensive collection of beautiful and rare shells 
from every part of the known world ; they princi- 
pally occupy the centre of the Great Room, and are 
arranged in their respective families, according to the 
Linnaean classification, in Cases, and under large 
Glass Shades, upon appropriate bronzed stands, and 
make with the Fishes, Crabs, Asterias, Echini, Ma- 
drepores, Gorgonia, Lsis, Sponges, and other Marine 
productions, a most interesting display of the inhabi- 
tants of the waters. About one thousand four hun- 
dred have their generic names attached to the Cases, 
and the most remarkable have their specific also; 
to enumerate which would far exceed the limits of a 
work of this description. The History of the Paper 
Nautilus (Argonauta Argo) is, however, so remark- 
able, that it cannot be omitted. 

Pope, in his Essay on Man, alludes to it, where 
he says — 

*' Leam of the little Nautilus to sail: 

" Spread the thin oar, and catch the driving gale.'* 

Pliny describes it thus : " But amongst the princi- 
pal miracles of nature is the animal called Pompilos 
or Nautilus; it ascends to the surface of the sea in 
a supine posture, and gradually raising itself up, 
forces, by means of its tube, all the water from the 
shell, in order that it may swim the more readily ; 



123 

then throwing back the two foremost arms displays 
between them a membrane of wonderful tenuity, 
which acts as a sail, while with the remaining arms 
it rows itself along, the tail in the middle acting as 
an helm to direct its course ; and thus pursues its 
voyage like a little ship, till alarmed by any ap- 
pearance of danger, when it takes in the water, and 
descends." 

The small Bell Glass, No. 4, contains several ar- 
ticles which were once the property of the celebrated 
Sir Charles Linnaeus ; a specimen of whose writing 
is likewise inclosed. Presented by Dr. Smith, Pre- 
sident of the Linnsean Society, 

Among the Turbos is the finest specimen of that 
rare shell the Wentletrap (Turbo Scalaris) ever 
known ; it was brought from Amboyna by the late 
Mr. Webber, of Blackheath, who once refused the 
sum of £500, offered for it by the late Earl of Bute. 



R2 



194 



ZOOPHYTIES. 



CORALS, MADREPORES, &c. 



Gradual, from these what nvimerous kinds descend 

Evaditjg e'en the micru&copic e\ e! 

Full Nature swarms with life 3 one wond'roub mass 

Of anipials, or atoms organized, 

Waiting the vital breath, when Pai'ent Heaven 

Shall bid his spirit blow. Thomson. 



The various Cases contain a rich and numerous as- 
semblage of the nihabitants of the marine world, 
disposed in such a manner as they may be supposed 
to exist in the bottom of their native element : they 
consist of Shells, Corals, Corallines, Madrepores, 
Gorgonias, Sponges, &c. &c. to describe which ac- 
curately would require the pen of an Ellis or a So- 
lander, and woald far exceed the limits of this little 
publication. We shall merely observe, that till lately 
the principal parts of the contents of these Cases were 
considered as Marine Vegetables, growing from the 
bottom of the ocean ; but the observation of later 
naturalists have decidedly proved them to be the 
fabrication of different minute animals, which how- 
ever insignificant they may appear to the unobstrving 
part of mankind, are, from their immense, their in- 



195 

conceivable numbers, of more consequence than gene- 
rally supposed : it is to the accumulated myriads of 
them that we owe part of the island on which we live; 
our hills are in many places full of them, and some 
rocks are entiiely of their formation. New Islands 
have been formed within the memory of persons now 
living; and many seas arebecommg every year more 
difficult to navigate, being nearly choaked up by the 
habitations of animals almost too small for human 
perception. 

*' The whole groupe of the Thousand Islands, and 
indeed the greater part of those whose surfaces are 
flat, in the neighbourhood of the Equator, owe their 
origin to the labours of that order of marine worms 
which Linnffius has arranged under the name Zoo- 
phyta. These little animals, in a most surprising 
manner, construct their calcareous habitations under 
an infinite variety of forms; yet with that order and 
regularity, each after its own manner, which, to the 
minute inquirer, is so discernible in every part of the 
creation. But, although the eye may be convinced 
of the fact, it is difficult for the human mind to 
conceive the possibility of insects so small being en- 
dued with power, much less of being furnished in 
their own bodies with the materials for constructing 
the immense fabrics, which, in almost every part of 
the Eastern and Pacific oceans, lying between the 
Tropics, are met with in the shape of detached rocks, 
or reefs of great extent, just even with the surface ; 
or islands already clothed with plants, whose bases 
are fixed at the bottom of the sea, several hundred 
feet deep, where light and heat, so very essential to 
animal life, if not excluded, are sparingly received 
and feebly felt. Thousands of such rocks, reefs, and 
islands are known to exist in the Eastern ocean, 
within, and even beyond the limits of the Tropics. 



126 

The eastern coast of New Holland is almost wholly 
girt with reefs and islands of coral rock, rising per* 
pendicularly from the bottom of the abyss. Captain 
Kent, of the Buffalo, speaking of a coral reef of many 
miles in extent, on the south-west coast of New 
Caledonia, observes, that '' it is level with the water's 
edge, and towards the sea as steep as the wall of 
SI house ; that he sounded frequently within twice the 
ship's lengthof it, with a line of one hundred and fifty 
fathoms, or nine hundred feet, without being able to 
reach the bottom." How wonderful — how incon- 
ceivable ! that such stupendous fabrics should rise 
into existence from the silent but incessant and 
almost imperceptible labours of such insignificant 
worms." 



To the Museum has just been added, the fine Col- 
lection of Fossil-shells, and other Antediluvian re- 
mains, collected by the late Mr. Knight of Bland- 
ford : they are principally of this countrj^ and 
those from Hordwell Cliff extremely perfect and 
interesting. 



A very large Bell Glass, containing about 120 
species of Crabs and other Marine Animals, disposed 
in an appropriate manner on Corals, &c. 




4 



127 



Bell Glassy No, 6, 



MINERALS. 

Beautiful Group of Chrystals, of extraordinary size, 
from the mines of Daupiiiny : presented by Thomas 
Allan, Esq. of Edinburgh. 

Pipe Chalcedony, from Iceland. 

A large specimen of Opal in the Matrix. 

Three Opals, polished. 

Native Gold on Quarts, from Transylvania. 

Native Gold, from the Wicklow Mountain in Ire- 
land. 

Oriental Cat's Eye, 

Aqua Marine or Beryl, polished. 

Fluor Spar, from Derbyshire. 

Group of Amethyst Chrystals, from Hungary. 

Sulphurets of Arsenic, 

Beautiful Pearl Spar, with snow-like appearance, 
from Transylvania. 

Pearl Spar, Chrystalized, from Hungary. 

Fine specimen of Chrystalized Iron Ore, with an 
iridescent surface, from the Isle of Elbe, on the coast 
of Tuscany, 



128 

Splendid Ir07i Ore, from Hungary. 

Bubbled Malachites, Carbonate of Copper*, vvitt 
Mountain Blue^ from Siberia. 

Native Copper, from Cornwall. 

Copper Ore, from ditto. 

Model of the Pigot Diamond, valued at 35,0001. 

Variety of Ckrystals, from Buenos Ayres ; con- 
taining Silver-like appearances, and other extraneous 
matte r^ 



129 



Miscellaneous articles. 



Numerous, extraordinary, and stupendous remains 
of non-descript animals, found in the vicinity of the 
rivers Ohio, Wabash, Illinois, Mississippi, Osage, 
Missouri, &c. brought to England by a gentleman 
who passed several years on a mineralogical tour in 
unfrequented parts of North- America. They consist 
of different parts of animals, such as heads, vertebras, 
ribs, grinders, and horns ; among which, the most 
worthy of remark is the foot of a clawed animal of 
the ferce order, or tiger species. This paw, clothed 
with flesh, skin, and hair, filled with muscles, flex- 
ors, and cartilages, must, when dilated on its prey, 
have covered a space of ground four feet by three. 
Did the animal to whom it appertained partake of 
a strength of body proportionate to the size of this 
foot, and at the same time add the agiiity and fero- 
city of the tiger to his unequalled magnitude, he must 
have been the terror of the forest, and of mankind. 
That such an animal did exist, this specimen is a 
sufficient proof; nor did it alone inhabit America, for 
we have reason to believe that an animal, similar in 
some respects to the above, once had possession of 
our island ; for various remains of non-descript ani- 
mals have been frequently dug up of late in different 
counties. The thigh-bone marked A. which is 
S 



130 

nearly four feet in length, was found in digging the 
Ellesmere Canal, in the year 1803, near the village 
of Wrenbury, in Cheshire. B. is one toe of the 
clawed foot. C. several joints of the tail, which must 
in the living aul:nal have been as thick as an ordi- 
nary oak tree. D. one of the vertebrae of the back ; 
the passage for the spaial marrovv is so large, that a 
man's arm may with east pass through it. E. is a 
section of a spiral tusk, thirteen feet in length. F. 
a carnivorous grinder, nine pounds weight, being 
one hundred and forty-four times as heavy as that of 
a horse. G. a large grinder of another species of 
these stupendous non-descripts, evidently an herbi- 
vorou.s animal. On the subject however of these In- 
cognita, but a few words are necessary : they have 
been on the whole the surprise of the enlightened 
naturalist, and the admiration of the classical scho- 
lar ; we therefore refer those, who wish to be more 
particularly informed respecting these remains, to a 
pamphlet, entitled " Memoirs of 3Iammoth, and other 
extraordinary and stupendous bones/' written by the 
gentleman who brought them to England, and sold 
them to the Proprietor of this Museum. It may be 
had at the Rooms, price Is. Qd. 

A Glass Cover near the bones, contains a very 
interesting article to the Naturalist, as it tends to 
throw some light on an obscurity which envelopes 
thefe objects. It is a portion of the different kinds 
of hair of a species of Mammoth recently found 
entire, and brought to St. Petersburg by Mr.-Mi- 
chael Adams, who has published a particular account 
of it, of which the following is an extract. " In 
the summer of the year 1799, during their annual 
excursions, a chief of the Tongouses discovered on 
■the shore of the frozen sea, near the mouth of the 
river Lenna, an entire Mammoth, enclosed in a rock 



131 

of ice, which rendered it impossible to be got at, till 
about five years afterwards, when during a warm 
summer, the ice became so much dissolved, that the 
huge carcass fell out, and slid down about a hundred 
paces from its bed ; when the Tongouses cut off the 
ivory tusks (the only part considered of value by them) 
and left it a prey to the white Bears, Gluttons,\yolves, 
and Foxes, it was near two years afterwards, that, 
by a fortunate circumstance, Mr Adams heard of it, 
went immediately to the spot, and rescued the com- 
pleat skeleton and part of the skin, which he trans- 
ported by land to St. Petersburg, (a distance of 7500 
miies) where it is now set up in the Imperial Academy. 
A rude drawing, made of it when perfect, represents 
it as having an appearance something between a 
Pig and an Elephant, having ponued ears, and a 
long bristly mane along the whole back ; it was 
about 15 feet in length, and 10 high, the bones of 
the head (without the tusks) weighed 460lt)s. Upon 
the whole, there can be little doubt but it was the 
species of Northern Elephant now extinct, the bones 
of which are found both in America and Europe • 
large quantities having been lately discovered in seve- 
ral parts of England.'* 

Sir Joseph Banks received a piece of skin and 
portions of hair, similar to what is in this collection, 
as a present from Mr. Adams, which is now in the 
Surgeons Hall, Lincolns-Inn-Fields, 

Glass Case, containing an Egyptian Mummy. 

The ancient methods observed by the Egyptiaus in 
embalming human bodies, according to Herodotus, 
were performed after this manner: " There were cer- 
" tain persons appointed for the business, who had 
" three prices according to the workmanship. In 
^* the most esteemed method of embalming, theyex- 

S2 



132 

*' tracted the brains by the nose with a crooked 
" iron, and then poured in drugs ; afterwards, they 
" opened the body, took out the bowels, washed the 
" inside with palm wine, and having rubbed into it 
*' pounded perfumes, filled the cavity with myrrh, 
*' cassia, and other spices, and then sewed it up. 
" After this they washed the body with nitre, and 
" let it lie seventy days; and having washed it 
*' again, bound it up in folds of linen, besmearing it 
" over with gums, which the Egyptians used instead 
" of glue. The relations then took home the body, 
" and enclosing it in the wooden figure of a man, 
" placed it in the catacombs. Another method of 
'* embalming, was injecting turpentine of cedar with 
" a pipe into the body, without cutting it ; they 
" then salted it for seventy days, and afterwards 
'* drew out the pipe, which brought along with it 
" the intestines. The nitre dried wp the flesh, leav- 
"^ ing nothing but skin and bones. The third way 
*' was only by cleansing the inside with salt and 
^' water, and salting it for seventy days.^"* From 
what Diodorus observes, one wouid imagine that 
there was a way of preserving the bodies much su- 
perior to either of the former; for he says, their 
eye-brows and eye-lashes, with the form and ap- 
pearance of the whole body, were so well preserved, 
that they might be known by their features ; whence 
many of the Egyptians kept the bodies of their an- 
cestors in houses adorned at a great expence ; and 
had the pleasure to see their forefathers for many 
generations back, and to observe all their features as 
well as if they were living. It does not, however, 
appear that any bodies were ever discovered em- 
balmed in this manner. 

The Mummy in this collection was brought from 
^gypt by the French, and taken from them by an 



133 

English privateer, and was remarkable for containing 
only the head, and part of the thigh and leg bones, 
which were enveloped in folds of fine linen, nearly 
three inches thick. The linen in some parts was as 
white and perfect as when first done, and on the legs 
there was some of the fl^sh still remaining, although, 
from a moderate calculation, it must have been em- 
balmed upwards of two thousand years. 

A Mummy of the White Ibis. The White Ibis, 
though now unknown to the Egyptians, was formerly 
worshipped by them as a deity, in consequence of the 
great service which it did them in destroying the vast 
quantities of serpents and reptiles with which that 
country was infested. The veneration for them 
extended even after their death ; for whenever the 
body of a dead Ibis could be found, it was carefully 
embalmed, after the manner of the mummies. Mr. 
Bruce, the Abyssinian traveller, mentions his having 
opened several of them, in which the bones, and even 
some feathers, were entire. BufTon says, *' he re- 
" ceived several of these mummies from the bird 
*' pits in the plains of Saccara ; that the shape 
** of all of them was a sort of doll, formed by the 
*' bandages which incased the bird, of which 
*' the greater part fell into black dust when the li- 
*' gatures were removed.^' They are generally pre- 
served in earthen jars, with the cover cemented 
down; but sometimes, as is the case in this, put 
into a kind of coffin made of sycamore, the covers 
of which were decorated with hieroglyphics, which 
are yet visible in the one in this Museum. 

A Mummy of the Ihis, opened to shew its con- 
tents. 

Hasselquist, and other naturalists and travellers 
who have visited the catacombs of Egypt, say that 



154 

tile Mummies of the Ibis contain in general little hut 
black dust, which is believed to be the remains of the 
bird : but that they were informed that sometimes, 
though very rarely, the bones and feathers were 
found in them : this is the case with the one in this 
Museum ; the cloth in which it was wrapped, the bill, 
bones, and feathers, are still entire. This very inte- 
resting and curious article was added to this collection 
by the liberality of Jacob Wilkinson, Esq. of Bath, 
whose brother, C. Wilkinson, Esq. of Clapham, 
brought it from Egypt. What are our boasted mo- 
numents of antiquity ? the dates of our churches and 
cathedrals (though crumbled and crumbling into dust) 
are but as yesterday when compared with the age of 
a few perishable feathers, which had existence on the 
banks of the Nile perhaps two thousand years before 
the foundation stone of the first of them mms laid. 
What a field for reflection does the contemplation 
of this article open to our view. 



Son of to-day, thy daring hopes are vain, 

That aught of thee my lengthened date shall gain.' 



A Mummy of the Ibis, in its original envelope, as 
taken from the earthen vessel ; the linen cloth, for 
the manufacture of which the ancient Egyptians were 
celebrated, remaining entire. Presented by the 
Bishop of Durham, 

Mummy of the Head of some large Graniverous 
animal. 

Ditto of the Ichneumon. 

The two last were brought from Egypt, and pre- 
sented to the Museum by the Earl of Cavan. 



133 

Elephant's Head and Grinders ; presented by Sa- 
muel Staniforth, Esq. Liverpool. 

The Head of the Gnu (Antelope Gnu), finely pre- 
served. 

The Skull of the Babyroussa, or Indian Hog. The 
most distinguishing characteristic of this animal con- 
sists in four large tusks, the two stoutest of which 
proceed, like those of the w^ild boar, from the under 
jaw, pointing upwards ; the two others rise up like 
horns on the outside of the upper jaw, just above 
the nose, and extend in a curve above the eyes, 
almost touching the forehead, and are about seven 
inches long. The use this animal makes of these 
tusks is in sleeping ; which they do, as is said, by 
hooking them on the branches of trees. The Baby- 
roussa is found in several of the islands of the East 
Indies. 

The Horn of the Ibex. 

Three Noses of the Saw Fish. The largest of these 
is three feet seven inches long, eight inches broad at 
the base, and four at the point ; it is armed at the 
sides with thirty-eight strong teeth, about an inch and 
a half long, and two inches from each other. 

The Jaws of an enormous Shark, which measure 
six feet six inches in circumference. 

The Fossil Tooth of a Shark, nearly four times 
as large as those in the above jaws. 

Head of a Crocodile, near twenty feet long. 

The Cavity of a Whale's Ear. 

The Horn of the Narwhale, or Sea Unicorn, 9 feet 
Q inches long, of the most beautiful Ivorj', finely 
wreathed. 



136 

The Jaws of a Porpoise. 

Skull of the Walrus. 

Glass Case, containing four different Beaks and 
Heads of the Calao, or Horn-bill Bird ; remarkable 
for the singular appendages on the upper mandi- 
bles. No. 1. Helmet Hornbill. No. 2. Pied Hornbill. 
No. 3. Rhinoceros Hornbill. No. 4. Philippa Horn- 
bill. 

Skeletons of Birds, viz. the Creeper, Snipe, Oy- 
ster Catcher, Lark, Starling, Green Grosbeak, Field- 
fare, and Moor Game. 



FINIS. 



Rcynell, Printer, zi, Piccadilly, LondoiSo 



MEMOIRS 

OF 

MJMMOTH, 

AND OTHER 
EXTRAORDINARY AND STUPENDOUS 

BONES. 



^ i ) i/i, A I 



MEMOIRS 

OF 

MAMMOTH, 

AND VARIOUS 

OTHER EXTRAORDINARY AND STUPENDOUS 

BONES, 

OF 

INCOGNITA, OR NON-DESCRIPT ANIMALS, 

FOUND 

iJT THE vicijyirr 

OF THE 

OHIO, WABASH, ILLINOIS, MISSISSIPPI, MISSOURI, 
OSAGE, AND RED RIVERS, &c. &c. 

PUBLISHED 

FOR THE INFORMATION OF THOSE LADIES AND GENTLEMEN, WHOSh 
TASTE AND LOVE OF SCIENCE TEMPT THEM TO VISIT THE 

LIVERPOOL MUSEUM. 



BT TH. ASHE, ESO. 



His Bones are as strong pieces of brass ; his Bones are like bars o\ 
iron." Job. 



LIVERPOOL, 

PRINTED BY G. F. HARRIS. 

1806. 



INTRODUCTION. 

A Gentleman who has passed several 
years in North America, and whose 
pursuit was the study of nature, has just 
returned to this country with several 
boxes containing objects of the highest 
interest to the curious and intelligent 
world. Conscious of the erroneous opi- 
nions which had been entertained respec- 
ting the stupendous Animal Remains 
found in Russia, Siberia, and the western 
climes, he bent his mind designedly to 
that particular investigation, and made 
researches for such materials as he knew 
to be necessary for the foundation of ab- 
stract truth, or reasonable hypothesis. 
The absence of such materials led the in- 
genious author of' JYotes on Virginia," to 
various beautiful visions, but to no salu- 
tary or solid fact. From the same cause, 
the celebrated Doctor Hunter, and many 
others, have wasted infinite science on 
some favourite theory; and the world, 
from this wide and multifarious opinion, 
had to embrace, now one delusion, and 



now another. Hence some thought the 
Bones were the remains of a giant. Many 
called them extraneous fossils ; others re- 
garded them as mineral substances ; some 
said the animal was carnivorous ; others 
as strenuously asserted it to be herbivo- 
rous, graminivorous, or mixed. At length 
wearied by the contest, mankind associ- 
ated in one idea; — the bones were called 
" mammoth bones^'' without any respect to 
the difference in their character, and the 
contrasted sensibilites which such differ- 
ence generates and inspires- But from 
the evidence of the extraordinary bones 
now collected, and preserved for public in- 
spection in the Liverpool Museum, it is clear- 
ly demonstrated, that they are the remains 
of various stupendous incognita, or non- 
descript animals, of perfectly different 
propensities, dispositions, and manners 
of life. 

Box, J\'o. J, 

Contains the pnncipal part of the head 
of a carnivorous animal. The jaws are 
entire, filled with grinders. The seat of 



the muscles is traced along the nose, and, 
from their depth, must have given vio- 
lent action to the nostrils and lips. Here 
is also a maxillcE inferior of the same kind 
of monster, but much larger, and of great 
weight and beauty. 

JVo.% 

Possesses the vertebrae, in high preserva- 
tion. The OS sacrum^ and coccygis are con- 
nected by the ossification of the cartilage ; 
and the bed of the coccygaei muscles arc 
strongly visible. Through the cavity for 
the passage of the spinal marrow a man's 
arm can easily pass. 

JTo. 3, 

Has the os ischium^ pelvis thigh, and leg 
bone. These bones are both ponderous 
and perfect. 

Jfo. 4, 

Contains an object of inexpressible gran- 
deur and sublimity. It is the foot of a 
clawed animal, possibly of the order of 
ferce, for the claws are sheathed and er- 



tractile, in the manner oF the cat, tiger, 
and lion. When this paw was dilated 
on its prey, filled with muscles, flexors, 
and cartilage, clothed with flesh, turgid 
skin, and hair, it must have covered a 
space of ground four feet by three. The 
animal to whom it appertained, with su- 
perior agility and ferocity to the tiger, 
with a body, too, of unequalled magni- 
tude and strength, must have been the 
terror of the forest and of man. This 
monument stands alone. It has no com- 
petitor. It is the first and only one of 
such exorbitant magnitude ever disco- 
vered, or probably that ever will be. 

Mo, 5, 

Contains a rib, and fragments of ribs, not 
concave internally, but with the edges 
standing out, to give more energy, and 
to bear more resistance. From hence it 
would appear that the animal was en- 
dowed with the gift of contraction : his 
ribs closing together like the sticks of a 
fan, he could spring forward, or make a 
mighty leap. This box contains other 



fragments, whose office in the frame is 
not sufficiently denoted for description. 

Mo, 6, 

Encloses four extraordinary bones. They 
defy the inteUigence of the writer. He 
cannot discover what part they perform- 
ed in the animal machine. He supposes 
them femori of some incognilam of great 
force, as is wonderfully expressed by the 
deep insinuosities in the bones, in which 
the tendon of the triceps, and other large 
muscles, three inches in diameter, could 
lie concealed. 

Ko. 7, 

Embraces the teeth of various animals, 
weighing from one ounce to ten pounds. 
The grinding surfaces denote the pursuits 
and passions of each animal. The large 
grinder, with parallel lines of enamel 
slightly indended, bespeaks the peaceable 
herbivorous animal, of the elephantine 
species. The ponderous grinder, with 
high double-coned processes, and inter- 
locking fangs, denotes the cruel carnivo- 



10 

rous monster, lurking in the woods. The 
teeth with less indention than this, betray 
a mixed animal ; and those which have 
still less indention, and which express a 
rotatory motion, show the animal to be 
graminivorous, and sometimes also mix- 
ed. This box contains twenty specimens 
of the above characters. Some of the 
teeth are elegantly stained, by the long 
and unremitting industry of nature ; and 
some, from lying in contact with mineral 
substances, have obtained radiant and 
prismatic colours. 

Xo. 8, 

Contains about twenty four specimens of 
carnivorous grinders, of such variety of 
size that the animal's age can be follow- 
ed from one to innumerable years. A 
process, which sunk into the maxillce^ is 
five inches wide, and the cones on the 
surface two inches deep. Some teeth ex- 
hibit nothing but the cortex, from which 
fire can be struck, and yet many are was- 
ted by manducation. The canals, in which 
nerves and blood-vessels were lodged, axe 



11 

perfect, and discover the great supply 
which prevented the waste of attiliion, 
and made the teeth endure the compres- 
sion of any hard body between the jaws. 
This box affords a rich contemplation. 

Mo, 9, 

Possesses the remains of an animal of the 
anterior world. Coming to a rock, which 
the naturalist had to spring, in following 
a vein of mineral, this grand object ap- 
peared under the deep explosion. It is 
the defence of an herbivorous incognitum^ of 
ponderous volume, and amazing height. 
The defence in a state of perfection, must 
have been five hundred weight, implying 
a head of twelve hundred weight. The 
present fine subject, in a state of decom- 
position, weighs one hundred and fifty 
pounds, is twenty five inches in circum 
ference, and when (being in three parts) 
put together, is sixteen feet long. It is 
by no means in the Ibrm of that of the 
elephant ; it makes a complete revolve, 
and appears as if the animal could have 
moved it at pleasure. The grain traverses 



12 

in diamonds, in the manner of the finest 
ivory, and the internal substance is as 
white as snow. Several thousand ages 
have only led this to a gradual decom- 
position. It may yet last many years ; 
but must be touched with a trembling 
and a pious hand, by him who can ad- 
mire the wonderful greatness and wisdom 
displayed in the operations of nature, 
and who can contemplate with rapture 
an object which, it is hoped, the vulgar 
will neglect, as " a dreary void." 

Jfo. 10, 

Contains the tusks, defenses^ or horns, of 
various animals. One may be attributed 
to the rhinoceros, another to the elephant, 
but none to the hyppopotamus or river 
horse. One appertained to a huge ani- 
mal of the ox kind, and another to some 
mixed incognitum^ of great stature. The 
defense IS better than six feet; not running 
in ?L spiral volute^ but rising nearly perpen- 
dicular, and turning off at the point. Such 
was never before found. The animal 
and his attributes are unknown. 



MEMOIRS 

OF 

MJMMOTH, 

AND OTHER 
FXTRAORDINARY AND STUPENDOUS 

BONES. 



MEMOIR I. 



T VENTURE to iovlte the public attention 
-■- to a subject, which has for several years 
excited considerable curiosity, but no profound 
or solid investigation. In accompanying me 
through this arduous duty, I trust you will 
not expect from me a rhetoric to admire, or an 
eloquence to applaud ; these are endowments 
which the naturalist has neither leisure to cul- 
tivate, nor to acquire : therefore I aim at no- 
thing but simplicity and truth, and shall even 
divest myself of such technical terms as may 
perplex the reason of those who are not desi- 



JB 



rous of entering into useless refinements, or 
tedious abstractions. 

Long has the greater part of mankind la- 
boured under difficulties, which might have 
been avoided by an acquaintance with the dis- 
coveries of travellers and philosophers. During 
the study of most sciences, we notice improve- 
ments unknown to the majority of the people ; 
and in no one have these become more conspi- 
cuous, than in the study of natural history, 
and particularly that portion of it which relates 
to the extinct animals of the immense and in- 
teresting continent of America. 

Since the wild conjectures of deluded m^u 
were banished from the annals of natural his- 
tory, the study has become one of the most 
useful and pleasing to all of a common under- 
standing. The, science is now characterised by 
a manner, hostile only to the pride of the pe- 
dantic scholar. I have the honor to open some 
of the most extensive scenes ; — let their mag- 
nificence lead the intelligent. . An entrance is 
desired, that the wonderful greatness and wis- 
dom displayed in the operations of nature may 
be contemplated with rapture, in parts ne- 



glected by the vulgar as a " dreary void." For 
my part, although imperious circumstances 
frequently compelled me to suspend my views, 
still I bring with me an undecayed sensibility 
to their attractions, and a determination to per- 
form my duty with all the assiduity and zeal I 
am capable of exerting, and merited by your 



encouragement. 



It is not a little to the honor of the present 
age, that so many gentlemen of liberal fortune 
and respectable families, declining the slip- 
pery paths of political ambition, have dedicated 
much of their time, and not a little of their 
wealth, to sustain the cause of science and of 
literature. This observation will undoubtedly, 
from the association of ideas, recall the names 
of Walpole, of Pennant, of Jefferson, and of 
Banks, to your familiar recollection ; — pain- 
ful recollection, which informs, that the two 
first are now no more ! 

Of the writers of natural history I only 
mention the names of those who have endea- 
voured to make themselves acquainted with the 
object of our immediate investigation. And 
yet how imperfect was the information they 
B 2 



obtained! It could not be otherwise. Sir Jo- 
seph Banks passed the greatest part of his life 
in anatomizing the smallest productions of na- 
ture, such as grubs raid butterflies; the province 
of Walpole was equally confined ; Pennant 
never left Great Britain; and Mr. Jefi'erson, 
though amply qualified by an improved, philo- 
sophic, and energetic mind, had not met with 
sufficient evidence to establish irrefragible and 
certain conclusions. Hence the variety of con- 
jecture, and error of judgment, which, on this 
subject, so universally abound. The ruling 
passions of mankind are excited, and the future 
current of their lives frequently directed, by 
trivial circumstances. One of the greatest 
painters of the age was attracted by an irre- 
sistible impulse towards his art, by a perusal 
of a treatise on it ; and Mr. Jeflferson's Notes on 
Virginia, at an early period gave me a turn for 
natural history, which has never abandoned 
me, even to this middle period of life. His 
critical and philosophic remarks on the mam- 
moth, excited my enthusiasm, but did not 
satisfy my judgment; and I determined to ex- 
plore the country where the bones of so stu- 
pendous an animal were so frequently found. 
With this intent, I o;ained the Apelichean ; de- 



sccnded the Ohio ; traversed the depths of the 
vallev and the hio-hest summit of the mountain; 
saw the Illinois, the Mississippi, and the Mis- 
souri ; and at length obtained the completion 
of my wish, the ardent object of my prayer, — 
a collection of bones, vulgarly called mammoth 
bones, but which I shall treat on under separate 
heads. 

Before, however, I go into details of this 
particular nature, it may be amusing to you, to 
hear the conjectures of those who have passed 
before me, and the authorities on which such 
conjectures were grounded. 

It is now ninety years ago, since the first 
remains of this animal were found in America. 
They were then thought to be the remains of a 
Giant! The formation of the teeth, the under 
jaw, the singularity and size of the bones, and 
the difficulty of discovering what part they per- 
formed in the animal machine, led to this egre- 
gious error ; which was augmented by that dis- 
position to the marvellous, which emigration 
encourages mankind to feel. This absurd idea 
gave way to one, not more sound. These re- 
mains wtrt cMtd exiraneous fosn/s by some, by 



by others mineral substances. However, but few 
years elapsed, bel'ore numerous attempts were 
made by all nations to procure a satisfactory 
collection of bones. At lengtii Mr. Peale, of 
Philadelphia imagined he had accomplished 
this great object. He dug up a parcel of bones 
in Ulster county, state of New York, formed a 
skeleton, and dignified it with the name of 
mammoth^ a Russian term, from rnemolh, a word 
derived from the Arabic mehemot^ signifying 
the bekemol of Job. This word is applied to 
any animal of extraordinary bigness: for in- 
stance, ^y/i/ is the Arabic appellation for an ele- 
phant of ordinary size; but when of uncommon 
magnitude, the adjective mehemodi is always 
added. 

The skeleton exhibited by Mr. Peak is of 
the following dimensions: — 

Height over the shoulders 1 1 feet ; length 
from the chin so the rump 15 feet; from the 
end of the tusk to the end of the tail 31 feet ; 
width of the hips and body 5 feet 8 inches; 
length of the under jaw 3 ft. 1 inch ; weight 
of the same 63i lbs ; length of the thigh bones 
3 ft. 7 inches; smallest circumference of the 



same 1 foot 6 inches; length of the bone of the 
foreleg 2 ft. 9 inches; length of the tusks, de- 
fenses^ or horns, 10 ft. 7 inches; circumference 
of one tooth 1 ft. 6f inches; weight of the same 
4 lbs. 1 oz. The whole weighing about 1 000 lbs. 

Within the breast of this skeleton Mr. Peale, 
accompanied by a dozen of his friends, partook 
of a superb dinner. 

The curiosity excited by this singular spec- 
tacle was augmented by the following tradition, 
then in circulation, and said to be delivered in 
the terms of a Shaw^anece Indian : — 

" Ten thousand moons ago, when nought 
but o;loomy forests covered this land of the 

O 'J 

sleeping sun ; long before the pale men, with 
thunder and fire at tlicir command, rushed on 
the wings of the wind to ruin this garden of 
nature ; when nought but the untamed wande- 
rers of the woods, and men as unrestrained as 
they, were the masters of the soil ; a race of 
animals were in being, huge as the frowning 
precipice, cruel as the bloody panther, swift as 
the descending eagle, and terrible as the angel 
©f night. The pines ©rashed beneath their 



8 



I'cet ; and the lake shrunk when they slacked 
their thirst. The forceful javelin in vain was 
hurled, and the barbed airow fell harmless from 
their side. Forests were laid waste at a meal ; 
the groans of expiring animals were heard, 
and whole villages, inhabited by men, were de- 
stroyed in a moment. The cry of universal 
distress extended even to the regions of peace 
in the west, and the Good Spirit interposed to 
save the unhappy. The forked lightning gleam- 
ed all around, and loudest thunder racked the 
globe. The bolts of heaven where hurled upon 
the cruel destroyers alone, and the mountains 
echoed with the bellowings of death. All 
were killed except one male, the fiercest of the 
race, and him even the fury of the skies assailed 
in vain. He ascended the bluest summit which 
shades the source of many waters, and, roar- 
in<r aloud, bid defiance to every vengeance. The 
red lightning scorched the lofty firs, and rived 
the knotty oaks, but only glanced on the en- 
raoed monster. At lencrth, maddened with dis- 
dain, he leaped over the waves of the West, 
and at this moment reigns the uncontrouled 
monarch of the wilderness, in despite even of 
Omnipotence himself" 



9 



As the enthusiasm, awakened by the first 
discovery of these stupendous remains, began 
to subside, and as the effect of this sublime tra- 
dition must necessarily have yielded to reason 
and abstract enquiry, it was soon ascertained, 
that bones and skeletons of vast magnitude had 
been frequently found in Siberia, Russia, and 
Germany. Many specimens of them are to be 
seen in the Imperial Cabinet at Peter sburgh ; 
in the British, Doctor Hunter's, and the late 
Sir Ashton Lever's Museums, and in that of the 
Royal Society. Several eminent naturalists, as 
Sir Hans Sloane, Gmelin, Daubenton, Buffon, 
kc, are of opinion, that these prodigious bones 
and tusks are really the bones and tusks of 
elephants ; and many modern philosophers 
have held the mammoth to be as fabulous as 
the centaur. Tiie great difference in size they 
endeavour to account for, as arising in diffe- 
rence in age, sex, and climate ; and the cause 
of their being found in those northern parts of 
the world, where elephants are no longer na- 
tives, nor even long exist, they presume to have 
arisen from hence, that, in the great revolu- 
tions which have happened in the earth, the 
elephants, to avoid destruction, have left their 
native country, and dispersed themselves where 



19 

ever they could find safety. Their lot has been 
different. Some in a longer, and some in a 
shorter time after their death, have been trans- 
ported to great distances by some vast inunda- 
tions. Those, on the contrary, which survived, 
and wandered far to the north, must have fallen 
victims to the rigour of the climate. 

In the year 1767, Doctor Hunter had an 
opportunity of investigating more particularly 
this part of natural history ; and has evi- 
dently endeavoured to prove, that these fossil 
bones and tusks are not only larger than the 
generality of elephants', but that the tusks 
are more twisted, or have more of a spiral curve 
than elephants' ; and that the thigh and jaw 
bones differ, in several respects, from those of 
the elephant: but what appeared to put the 
matter beyond all dispute, was, the shape of 
the grinders, which seemed to belong to a carni- 
vorous animal, or at least to an animal of the mix- 
ed kind. Some have supposed these bones to be- 
longtothe hippopotamus^ orriver horse; butthere 
are many reasons against this supposition, as that 
animal is even much smaller than the elephant, 
and has such remarkably short legs, that his 
feelly reaches within a few inches of the ground. 



11 

America seems to be the quarter where 
the remains in question most abound. On the 
Ohio, and in many parts further north, tusks, 
grinders, and skeletons of unparalleled magni- 
tude, are found in vast numbers, some lying 
on the surface of the earth, and some a little 
below it. Mr. Stanley, taken prisoner by the 
Indians near the mouth of the Tenessee River, 
relates that being transferred thro' several tribes, 
he was at length carried over the mountains, 
west of the Missouri, to a river which runs 
westwardly ; that these bones abounded there ; 
and that th^ natives described to him an animal, 
to which they belonged, as still existing in the 
northern parts of their country. Bones of the 
same kind have been found in salines opened 
on the North Holston, a branch of the Tenessee 
about the latitude 36 north. Instances are 
mentioned of like animal remains found in the 
more southern climates of both hemispheres ; 
but Mr. Jefferson observes, that they are either 
so loosely mentioned as to leave a doubt of the 
fact; so inaccurately described as not to autho- 
rize the classing them with the great northern 
bones; or so rare as to found a suspicion, that 
they have been carried thither as curiosities from 
more northern regions. " So that on the whole 



12 



(continues he] there seems to be no certain A'es- 
tiges of the existence of this animal farther 
south than the salines last mentioned. It is 
remarkable, (he adds,) that the tusks and skele- 
tons have been ascribed to the elephant, while 
the grinders have been given to the hippopo- 
tamus or river horse. And yet it will not be 
said, that the hippopotamus and elephant came 
always to the same spot, the former to deposit 
his grinders, and the latter his tusks and skele 
ton 1 For what became of the parts not depo- 
sited there ? 

» 
•' We must agree, then, that these remains 
belong to each other ; that they are ol' one and 
the same animal; that this w\as not a hippopo- 
tamus, because the hippopotamus had no tusks 
nor such a frame, and because the grinders differ 
in their size as well as in the number and form 
of their points." That it was not an elephant 
he thought ascertained by proofs equally deci- 
sive. *' 1 wil 1 not avail myself (he says) of the 
authority of the celebrated anatomist, Mr. J. 
Hunter, who from an examination of the tusks 
has declared, they were essentially different 
form those of the elephant ; because another 
ctnatomistj D'Aubenton, equally celebrated. 



13 

iias declared on a like investigation that they 
are precisely the same. 

^' Between two such authorities I will suppose 
this circumstance as equivocal. Rut, first, the 
skeleton of the mammoth bespeaks an animal 
of five or six times the cubic volume of the ele- 
phant, ^dli/. The grinders are five times as 
large, are square, and the grinding surface 
studded with four or five rows of blunt points; 
whereas those of the elephant are broad and 
thin, and their grinding surface flat, odli/, 
i have never heard of an instance, and suppose 
there has been none, of the grinder of an ele- 
phant having been found in America, ithli/. 
From the known temperature and constitution 
of the elephant, he could never have existed 
in those regions, where the remains of the 
mammoth have been found. The elephant is 
a native only of the torrid zone and its vicini- 
ties : if, with the assistance of warm apartments 
and warm clothing, he has been preserved in 
life in f^he temperate climates in Europe, it hag 
only been for a short portion of what would 
have been his natural period ; and no instance 
of his multiplication in them have ever been 
known. But no bones of the mammoth, as I 



14 

have before observed, have been ever found 
farther south than the salines of the Holston, 
and they have been found as far north as the 
arctic circle. Those^ therefore, who are of 
opinion, that the elephant and mammoth are 
the same, must believe, 1^/, that the elephant 
known to us can exist and multiply in the fro- 
zen zone ; or, ^dli/^ that an internal fire may 
once have warmed those regions, and since 
abandoned them ; of which, however, the globe 
exhibits no unequivocal indications: or, Sdl]/. that 
theobliquityofthe ecliptic, when these elephants 
lived, was so great as to include within the 
tropics all those regions in which the bones are 
found : the tropics being, as is before observed, 
the natural limits of habitation for the elephant. 
But if it be admitted that this obliquity has 
really decreased, and we adopt the highest rate 
of decrease yet pretended, that is, of one mi- 
nute in a century — to transfer the northern tro- 
' pic to the arctic circle would carry the exis- 
tence of these supposed elephants 2.50,000 
years back ; a period far beyond the conteption 
of the duration of animal bones left exposed 
to the open air, as these are in many instances. 
Besides, though these regions would then be 
supposed within the tropics, yet their winters 



15 



would have been top severe for the sensibility 
of the elephant. They would h-dve had, too, 
but one night and one day in the year ; a cir- 
cumstance to which we have no reason to sup- 
pose the nature of the elephant fitted. How- 
ever, it has been demonstrated, that if a va- 
riation of the obliquity in the ecliptic takes 
place at all, it is vibratory, and never exceeds 
the limits of 9 degrees, which is not sufficient 
to bring these bones within the tropics. 

" One of these hypotheses, or some other 
equally arbitrary and inadmissible to cautious 
philosophy, must be adopted, to support the 
opinion, that these are the bones of the ele- 
phant. For my own part, I find it easier to 
believe that an animal may have existed, re- 
sembling the elephant in its tusks and general 
anatomy, while his nature was in other respects 
extremely different. From the 30^^ of south 
latitude to the 30^ of north, are nearly the li- 
mits which nature has fixed for the existence 
and multiplication of the elephant known to us. 
Proceeding thence northwardly to 36f°, we 
enter those assigned to the mammoth. The 
farther we advance north, the more the vestiges 
multiply, as far as the earth has been explored 



i6 



m that direction ; and it is as probable as other- 
wise, that this progression continues to the 
pole itself, if land extend so far. The centre 
of the frozen zone, then, may be the acme of 
their vigour, as that of the torrid is to the ele- 
phant. Thus nature seems to have drawn a 
belt of separation between these two tremen- 
dous animals, the breadth of which belt, in- 
deed, is not so precisely known, though at 
present we may suppose it about 6f degrees of 
latitude ; to have assigned to the elephant the 
regions south of these confines, and those north 
to the mammoth, founding the constitution of 
the one in extreme heat, and that of the other 
in the extreme of cold. When the Creator 
has therefore separated their nature as far as 
the extent of the scale of animal life allowed 
to this planet would permit, it seems perverse 
to declare it the same, from a partial resem- 
blance of the tusks and bones. But to what- 
ever animal we may ascribe these remains, it is 
certain, that such an one existed in America, 
and that it was the largest of all terrestrial beings 
of which any traces have been known to ap- 
pear." Such are the conclusions of the inge- 
nious author of ^^ JSCotes on Virginia y 



17 

Since the publication of the " A^oles^'' ho^\■ 
ever, many add'tional facts have occiined, which 
favor the assigning a rvidi'r range to this incog- 
nitum ; for in cutting the Santre and Cowper 
River Canal in South Carolina, there was turn- 
ed up a collection of bones, answering by de- 
scription to those of the mammoth. Their num- 
ber, variety, and arrangement were such, as en- 
tirely to prelude the idea of their having been 
carried thither as curiosities. The following 
letter, from t le most respectable authority, 
extends this rano;e still wider : — 

" Washington, I804. 

" SIR, 

" It is with some interest that I have learn- 
ed from the B iron Hombaldt, who has been 
five years travelling through South America, 
that among othe r curious animal remains, he 
has discovered several specimens of the mam- 
moth, perfectly distinguished by the great 
carnivorous teeth. He found them as far as 
latitude 33 south, but always on the highest 
mountains ; which the baron takes to be satis- 
factory evidence, that this great unknown must 
have been the inhabitant of a cold climate. In 
North America, none of those bones have ever 
c 



been found, but in comparitively low situa- 
tions ; this is to be expected of an animal, which 
in a cold climate, would inhabit the valleys, 
and in a warm one would seek the cold retreats 
of the mountains. 

" Yours, Sec. 

" R. P." 

Had the opportunities of Mr. Jefferson 
been greater than it appears they were, or, in 
other words, had his materials been less scanty, 
he would not only have given a larger circle 
for the range of this animal, but he would 
have discerned the remains of a Second Incogni- 
tum, whose stature was not, perhaps, inferior 
to that of the other. These second remains 
evince a member of the herbivorous order, and, 
notwithstanding the extraordinary size, I have 
no hesitation in believing, that the animal was 
of the genus of the elephant ; that he was the 
mammoth of the Russians, the mehemodi of 
the Arabians, and the behemoth of Job. 

I conceive the word behemoth signifies the 
beast, by way of eminence, or the greatest 
among beasts. 



19 

The characters in the 40th chap, of Job, 
from the 1 6tli verse to the end, appear highly 
applicable to a distinguished order of the 
elephant. 

" Behold now behemoth, which I made 
with thee ; he eateth grass as an ox." 

The simile, as an ox^ leads one to suppose 
some analogy in form. Accordingly the Ro- 
mans called it Bos Luca, the Lucanian beeve ; 
Lucania being that part of Italy into which 
Pyrrhus, in his war with the Romans brought 
them, and where the Romans first saw this 
creature. 

" Lo now, his strength is in his loins, and 
his force in the navel of his belly. 

" He moveth his tail like a cedar ; the si- 
news of his thighs are wrapped together. 

" His bones are as strong as pieces of brass ; 
his bones are like bars of iron." 

This description is too strong for any other' 
animal than the elephant : no other can enter 
c2 



20 



into competition with him for the largeness and 
iron-like strength of his ribs, spine, and thigh 
bones. 

" He is the chief of the ways of God's 
productions ; he that made him can make his 
sword approach unto him. 

" Surely the mountains bring him forth 
food where all the beasts of the field play." 

Three characters of the behemoth are men- 
tioned here. 1. He frequents the mountains. 
5. The mountains supply him with food. 3 ' 
He is a gentle and sociable animal. 

The elephant will graze freely with other 
animals, whether wild or tame. Among the 
latter, if tliev are near enouo;h to be hurt bv 
his sudden movement, he puts them gently by 
Avith his proboscis. 

''He lieth under the shady trees," in the 
covert of the reeds, and fens. 

" The shady trees cover him with their 
shadow ; the willows of the brook compass 
him about . 



21 

These verses describe the behemoth's places 
of shelter and repose, and, in such places, in 
general, are his bones found in America at 
this day. 

" Behold he drinketh up a river, and hast- 
eth not ; he trusteth that he can draw up 
Jordan into his mouth." 

What is here said seems to convey a sub- 
lime idea of the lofty stature, great force, and 
intrepidity of the behemoth. 

" Behold a river overfloweth, yet he niak- 
eth not haste; although Jordan break out 
against his mouth, he is in security." 

I may remark in this passage, that the com 
mon height of the elephant is 10 ft. and a half. 
There were some in the stables of Coarees, 
King of Persia, twelve cubits high. A credi- 
ble traveller. Sir T. Roe, assures us, that in 
Indostan he had seen some that were at least 
\2 ft. high, and Avas informed, that there were 
others 14or 15 ft. in height. The elephant^ 
therefore, can ford most rivers. The Jordan 
is here mentioned, not as frequented by elt- 



55 



phaiits, but only as put for any deep and vio- 
lent river: for such the Jordan is in the time 
of its overflowing. 

*' He taketh it with his eyes ; his nose pier- 
«eth through snares." 

Job is here called upon, in the most humi- 
liating irony, to try his courage on this large 
and powerful creature, to take him by open 
force, and guide him, when taken, with a cord, 
as he used to manage his camels. 

*' Let a man take him openly, let him draw a 
cord throuo-h his nose. " 

The second sentence alludes, I imagine, to 
the hair noose, or ring, which the Arabs put 
through the nose of their camels ; and by which 
a line being fastened to it, they bring them to 
their beck. 

The following version of Job's description 
appears too interesting to be disregarded. I 
trust you will agree with me in this opinion: — 

Behold my behemoth, his bulk uprear, 
Made by thy Maker, grazing like a steer. 



5S 



What strength is seated in each brawny loin ! 

What muscles brace his amplitude of groin ! 

Huge like a cedar, see his tail arise ; 

Large nerves their meshes weave about his thighs ; 

His ribs are channels of unyielding brass, 

His chine a bar of iron's harden'd mass; 

My sovereign work; prime of the bestial kind, 

In power of body, and in gifts of mind. 

I, with a tusky falchion, armed his jaw, 

His foe to humble and the desert awe : 

In peaceful majesty of might he goes, 

And on the mountain tops his forage mows ; 

Where beasts of ev'ry savage name resort. 

And in wild gambols round his greatness sport. 

In moory vales, beside the reedy pools, 

Deep plunged in ooze, his glowing flanks he cools 

Or in umbrageous groves enjoys repose, 

Or bower'd in willows, where the torrent flows. 

Not swelling rivers can his heart dismay, 

He stalks secure along the wat'ry way. 

Should Jordan heap his overflowing waves 

Against his mouth, the foaming flood he braves. 

Go now, thy courage on this creature try, 

Dare the bold duel, meet his open eye, 

Sublime on thy gigantic captive ride, 

And, with a slender string, his vastness guide. 



I now proceed to exhibit the parts which 
more decidedly mark the remains of the behe- 
moth: they consist, U/, of grinders exclusively 
worn by animals of the herbivorous or gramini- 



24 

vorous kind ; 2ndlf/^ of tusks differently fHshioii- 
ed ; and '^rdbj, ot" bones of an extraordniary 
magnitude, belonging thereto. 

Both the skeleton of the beliemoth, and 
of the stupendous carnivorous incognitum on 
whicli I propose to treat in my next memoir, 
being frequently embedded in company, they 
have hitherto been confounded togetliei* by 
writers, under the single appellation of mam- 
moth bones: though their appearance and cha- 
racter essentially differ, and distinctly point 
out two animals of the herbivorous and carni- 
vorous kinds. 

The teeth alone unquestionably bespeak 
this. The masticating surface of the mammoth 
tooth is Hat, nearly smooth, and ribbed trans- 
versly, somewhat like the elephant's grinders, 
but less prominently marked. There are from 
15 to 20 of these transverse lines on a single 
tooth of the mammoth; while, on that of the 
elephant, they seldom exceed half the num- 
ber. The masticating surface of the tooth of 
the carnivorous incognitum is set with four or 
five high double-coned processes, or studs, 
strongly coated with enamel. But I refer this 



55 

latter subject to the following memoir ; and now 
heo; to recall vour attention to what remains to 
be said on tlie wonderful subject of our re- 
cent speculations. That such an animal did 
exist in this country and in considerable num- 
bers is certain. The benevolent persuasion, 
that no link in the chain of creation will ever 
be suffered to perislv has induced certain au- 
thors of distinguished merit, to provide a re- 
sidence for the mammoth in the remote regions 
of the north. Some of the North American 
Indians also believe in the now-existence of this 
animal, and place him far beyond the Lakes. 
But their belief rests on mere tradition: for 
none of them will venture to declare they have 
seen the aniinal themselves, or that their in- 
formation concerning liim is dravvn from any 
person who has seen him. The truth is, their 
tradition does not relate to the mammoth, 
though it very forcibly applies to the carnivo- 
rous incognitum to which I have so often rever- 
ted, and with which you will shortly become 
acquainted. There is considerable evidence, 
that the behemoth, or mammoth (which I shall 
in future call it, in compliance with custom) 
has not been in existence in America for 
several hundred years. There is no entire ske- 



56 



leton of so large an animal, with herbivorous 
grinders^ extant; nor have I met with any of its 
bones in a state of preservation . but such as had 
been affected by salines and salt. The tusks 
and grinders alone remain : they in some de- 
gree resist the corrosion of time; though I la- 
ment to observe, that exposure to external air 
hastens them to a too sudd'en decay. The bones 
of this animal have never been found on the 
surface of the ground, — but sometimes 12 ft. 
underneath it, — and in one instance, below a 
lime-stone rock of immense solidity, which had 
grown over them, in the natural process of some 
thousand years I 

For want of the evidence of the real her- 
bivorous grinders, and in consequence of the 
inclemency of this hemisphere, Mr. Jefferson 
could not admit of the existence of an animal, 
of the genus and sensibility of the elephant, 
in America ; nor could I, were I not firm- 
ly convinced from my own careful observa- 
tions, and the remarks of a celebrated author, 
M. Volney, that the climate and face of na- 
ture is entirely changed. For there is no 
doubt, tliat the whole scope of country from 
above a rano-e of mountains which cros** the 



57 

Ohio somewhere below the Falls, as high upas 
Pittsburgh and bordering Lake Eric, was once 
overwhelmed Avith water, forming an immense 
lake ; that the summit of those hills was suffi- 
ciently high to do this ; and that by some great 
convulsion of nature this barrier was rent to 
its base, and the waters being thus let loose, 
the lake above was drained, and the floods, 
entering from all parts of the higher to the 
lower grounds, formed the bed of the river 
now called Ohio. That this immense body 
of water was salt, appears evident from the im- 
mense quantity of coral every where to be 
found in the presumed bed of this lake ; from 
the remains of submarine plants, fossils, and mi- 
nerals ; and from the bones and petrifactions of 
animals, which we know look for their appro- 
priate aliment in the sea. 

So great a change in the aspect of nature 
considerably influenced the climate, and, in 
proportion with its degeneracv, the mammoth 
pined and ultimately perished. 

But admitting the assertion of that distin- 
guished philosopher and statesman, Mr. Jeffer- 
son, that the sensibility of the elephant could 



58 



never have endured the inclemency of these 
regions, I will presume to touch the subject 
on a new ground, and allow it possible, that 
in consequence of some immense revolution 
in a more southern climate, the mammoth mi- 
grated into this, notwithstanding its being so ini- 
mical to his pursuits and affections. And where 
could this great revolution have happened? 
Perhaps on the very theatre of Mr. Jefferson's 
happiest visions, — when he says, " While ru- 
minating on these subjects, I have often been 
hurried away by fancy, and led to imagine, 
that what is now tlie Bay of Mexico was once 
a campaign country, and that from the point, 
or cape of Florida there was a continued range 
of mountains through Cuba, Hispaniola, Porto 
Rico, Martinique, Guadaloupe, Barbadoes, 
and Trinidad, till it reached the coast of 
America, and formed the shores which bound- 
ed the ocean, and guarded the country behind ; 
that by some convulsion, or shock of nature, 
the sea had broken through these mounds, 
and deluged that vast plain, till it reached the 
foot of the Andes ; that being there heaped up 
bv the trade winds, alwavs blowins: from one 
quarter, it had found its way back, as it conti- 
nues to do, through the gulph, between Flo- 



29 

rida and Cuba, carrying with it the loam and 
sand it may have scoped from the country it 
had occupied ; part of which it may have de- 
posited on the shores of North America, and 
with part formed the banks of Newfoundland." 

But I weary your attention: honor me with 
it, however, till we draw from matter so diffuse 
a few dialectical and useful conclusions. 

I have endeavoured to prove, Jirsl, that 
bones found throughout America, and com 
monly called mammoth bones, are the remains 
of more than one species of non-descript ani- 
mal ; 2dl2/^ that the real mammoth is a laro-e 
order of the elephant according w ith the behe- 
moth of Job ; jdly, that in consequence he in 
herbivorous, as manifested by his tusks and 
grinders; — 4thly, that this climate was once 
congenial to his nature, though now so adverse 
to his pursuits and sensibilities; — 5t/ily, that 
had the climate never suited his affections, still 
he might have migrated to this country, to avoid 
some shock of nature in his own; and Gthlj/, 
that the two last axioms lead to a conclusion, 
that this superb animal exists no more, or that 
he is only to be found in some of the remote 



30 

southern parts of the vast contuient of Ame- 
rica, yet unpenetrated and unseen. 

It may now be asked, whether I have in 
this memoir, gratified the expectations of the 
public? Whether I have shed any light on a 
subject hitherto Involved In gloom ? And 
whether I have given all the information which 
your curiosity may demand, your reason sug- 
gest, or your fancy require? Too well con- 
vinced of the limits of the human understand- 
ing, and of the bounds set to my own, I dare 
not answer in the affirmative. Much may have 
escaped my observation and my research : being 
engaged In travel for several years, or living in 
parts destitute of books and improved associa- 
tions, I was denied the assistance, drawn by 
other naturalists, from such materials, and was 
compelled to give you unembelllshed sugges- 
tions of my own mind — a mind Injured by amal- 
gamation with inhabitants of untutored wastes, 
where sensibility to grace is soon lost, where fe- 
licity of style cannot be gained, and where liter- 
ary pursuits become at length forgotten I 

To merit Indulgence, 1 shall exert all my 
energies to give my next memoir the interest 



you may consider absent from this. The sub- 
ject matter will be, — the great MegadniT/x^ the 
monstrous lion of the Greeks; the cruel carni- 
vorous animal of this western world, who was 
" huge as the frowning precipice; cruel as the 
bloody panther, swift as the descending eagle^ 
and terrible as the angel of night! " 



32 



MEMOIR II. 

I FEEL considerable encourao-ement to 
proceed in my views, both from the attention 
with which you distinguished me, and from a 
reasonable confidence that you are conscious of 
the difficulties so arduous an undertaking must 
be exposed to meet. You have the goodness 
to consider, that it is not with the sciences as it 
is with the arts. Aided by genius, a Titian or 
an Angelo, can at one hight reach the summit 
of his art ; but whatever capacity you allow 
to a naturalist, still, in the w^astes of science, 
he can only advance step by step. In his way 
he has abmrdities to engage, and prejudices to 
conquer, which require laculties not always at 
command, and at a time perhaps otherwise to 
be employed. The principal obstructions 
which are to be met with in this investio-ation 
arise out of the variety of opinions which it 
has hitherto given birth to. It is necessary to 
review them. 

Those stupendous remains, as I observed 



S3 

in my first memoir, have been attributed to a 
giant; to the hippopotamus; to tiie elephant ; 
to some carnivorous animal; and to some evil 
spirit, or devil. 

This perversion must be owing to the ne- 
glect of natural hi tory, or to the insufficient 
and mutilated evidence alone within the reach 
of those whose knowledge is contained in their 
closets, and who have never visited tjhe haunts, 
or become acquainted with the passions, of the 
animals w hose classification and properties they 
affect to o;ive. Hejice a tooth sent to Paris ; a 
tusk to London, and some mixed fractions to 
Philadelphia, decide a different character; to 
which, however, indolence, and the terror at- 
tending active enquiry, have assigned the ge- 
neral name of mammoth. 

Concerning the real origin of so terrific an 
animal as the megalonyx, various discordant, 
contradictory theories have been heard, equally 
repugnant to common sense, and the principles 
of sound philosophy. Concerning iiis early 
existence I may plead the general tradition of 
the most ancient nations, and of his present 
existence I feel unwillingness to doubt. There 

D 



54 

appears to be an order in the proceedings of 
Omnipotence, as regards creation, which we 
should not break. What a beautiful gradation! 
In creation there are no chasms ; all the parts 
of it are admirably connected, to make up one 
imiversal whole ; there is one chain of beings, 
from the lowest to the highest. The scale of 
creation does not advance by leaps, but by gen- 
tle steps. One rises gradually above another; 
dead matter, unorganized earth, minerals, vege- 
tables, insects, reptiles, birds, beasts, and man! 
The truth is, as observes the philosophic au- 
thor of the ^^ J^otes^' that a pigmy and a Pa- 
tagonian, a mouse and a mammoth, derive 
their dimensions from the same nutritive juices. 
The difference of increment depends on cir- 
cumstances unsearchable to beings with our 
capacities. Every race of animals seems to have 
received from their Maker certain laws of ex> 
tension. Their elaborative organs were formed 
to produce this, while proper obstacles were 
opposed to its further progress. Below these 
limits they cannot fiill; above them they can- 
not rise. What intermediate station they shall 
take may depend on soil, on climate, on food, 
and on a careful choice of breeders. Therefore 
we are neither to be astonished at the wide and 



35 

material difference in animal bulk, nor to encou- 
rage the theory of partial extinction: especi- 
ally we may presume, that the wise Creator of 
every thing would not suffer so great a link in 
the chain as the megalonyx to be entirely bro- 
ken off. He continues every created species, 
nor can they cease while the earth remaineth, 
any more than seed time and harvest, cold and 
heat, summer and winter, day and night. 

But to proceed in the manner of my first 
memoir, I shall revert to the observations of 
others, before I intrude on you those of my 
own. 

Stralenberg relates, that an entire skeleton 
of an incoo:nitum was found in Siberia, near 
Lake Izana Osero ; that it was 36 Russian ells 
long ; and so great was the distance between 
the opposite ribs, that a man standing upright 
on the concavity of a rib, as the skeleton rested 
on its side, could not quite reach the opposite 
one, even with the aid of a pretty long battle 
axe, which he held in his hand. This account 
is given as coming from the mouth of the man 
himself, and who was one of thirty others all 
eye-witnesses of the fact. Dr. Misserschmidt 
D 2 



36 

had seen the bones of a whole skeleton of a 
monstrous size, lying in a ditch between Tom- 
skoi and Kasmtsko, on tlie banks of the river 
Tomber. Stralenberg also says, that he saw at 
the city of Tumeer, a skull 2| ells in length, 
but this the Russians informed him was one of 
the smallest size. Muller and Isbrandes Ides 
go farther, and describe the colour, structure, 
kc. of some huo-e inco2;nitum. But what ere- 
dit can be given to such idle stories, when Ides 
himself confesses, that he knew of no person 
that had ever seen a living animal of such ex- 
traordinary magnitude? 

The fathers of the ancient church thought 
it to be the devil, and others the elephant. The 
rabbins affirm, that it is the largest four-footed 
creature that God has ever created ; that in the 
beo-innino; he made two, the male and the fe- 
male; the female he killed and salted, to reserve 
it as an entertainment for the elect, whenever 
the Messiah shall come; and that the male is 
still living, which, when this time comes, God 
will kill also, and give it to the Israelites, who 
shall then arise from the dead. As a proof 
of these extravagancies, they often swear by 
the share they expect in the " great beast." — 



S7 

Such have been the efforts to deversify the same 
object : one sect considered it a leviathan of 
unwieldy bulk, spouting torrents of" brine 
through its spiracles ; while another butcher, 
and pack it in a tub. 

It can answer no good purpose to follow 
this course any farther ; and yet I entreat you 
to return with me to the Shawanece's tradition, 
notwithstanding my having observed that little 
faith could be put in it ; traditions in general 
are so clouded with fable, as to obscure any 
truths they may happen to contain. 

However clouded the sublime tradition of 
the Shawanece Indian may be with fiction, still 
my experience has discovered a considerable 
degree of truth to prevail in it, I early disco- 
vered, that the description pointed at some stu- 
pendous voracious animal ; cruel, fleet, and 
capable of bounding sudden I v on his prey. 
Furnished with carnivorous teeth to consume, 
and with claws to rend and destroy : in short, 
a monster of the tiger line, endowed with every 
bloody and malignant property, and differing 
in every character but bulk from the mammoth, 
whose qualities I so lately defined. 



38 

I also concluded, that the flat-surfaced 
grinders, the defenses^ or tusks, belonged to 
one and the same animal, of the herbivorous 
order ; and that the teeth, studded with high 
double-coned processes, would be found to be- 
ions; to a carnivorous animal, armed with claws: 
in fact the nature of his pursuits would require 
them : of a form too un wieldly to range thro' 
the woods, he would have to lie in wait, and 
spring unexpectedly upon his prey. To effect 
this act, claws are necessary, and I believe it is 
a law of nature, that all carnivorous animals 
should possess them. Whereas tusks, dejenses^ 
or horns, would be incompatible with the pur- 
suits of such a creature ; would retard his pro- 
gress through the woods, and gather too much 
wind when coursing his prey in the plains. 

These opinions were considerably confirm- 
ed : the American philosophical society re- 
ceived a collection of bones here treated of, 
and among them, the os calois, or heel bones, 
of a clawed animal. This testimony, so flat- 
tering, so precious, and so ample to me, served 
as a subject of mere contention to others : a 
war ensued. Anatomists entered the lists ; 
philosophers multiplied ; and yet the question 



39 

remained undecided. The pride of man would 
not allow a single bone, one small bone, to beat 
down the edifice his errors had been so long 
erecting I The advocates of the hippopota- 
mus ; of the elephant ; of the extraneous fos- 
sils ; of any herbivorous animal, or of any 
aquatic one, became confounded, but not con- 
vinced. A species of commutation followed, 
and teeth, tusks, hoofs, and clavv s, were pitched 
together, to compose one animal. Not content 
with this arrangement, I abandoned the scene, 
and visited the regions where the object of dis- 
pute was said to abound ; those plains he had 
once devastated ; those lakes in which he had 
once slacked his thirst. — I soon discovered that 
I had chosen the proper theatre for the decision 
of the question. 

Nature having blessed these transmontanc 
regions with a bountiful supply of salines^ or 
springs of salt water ; the earth there being soft 
or spongy, and impregnated with mineral salts 
is rendered peculiarly fit for the reception and 
preservation of certain bodies, which, in other 
places, would undergo a speedy decay. Hence 
the profusion of large bones beyond the moun- 
tains, while on the Atlantic side of them, where 



40 

salines are scarce, such remains have but rarely 
been found. Between the Wabash and the Il- 
linois, a considerable space of a plain is occu- 
pied with bones of all descriptions, some on 
the surface, and some beneath the ground. 
At a considerable cHstance back of St. Louis, 
in Upper Louisiana, there is a large parcel or 
body of both animal and human bones, mixed 
altogether promiscuously, over a space of 
ground of 300 yards, some lying, and others 
sticking up. Some of the largest order were 
presented to the Baron Carondolet, while in 
that country, who pronounced them to belong 
to an elephant. 

Upon either margin of the Big- Bone-Lick, 
which is a shallow stream of salt water, in the 
state of Kentucky, flowing into the Ohio, there 
lies a stratum, extending a considerable dis- 
tance, composed entirely of the bones of the 
buffalo, elk, deer, and other smaller animals, 
as alluded to in the Indian tradition, where it 
beautifully observes, " the groans of expiring 
animals were every where heard." But, judge 
of my surprize, when attentively examining 
the bones, I discovered, that almost every one 
of any length, had received a fracture, occa- 



41 

sioned, undoubtedly, by the teeth of some 
carnivorous animal, while in the act of feeding 
upon his prey. It is well known that the buf- 
falo, deer, elk, and a variety of otlier animals, 
are in the constant habit of making such places 
their resort, in order to drink the salt water, 
and lick the impregnated earth. Now, may 
we not from these facts infer, that nature had 
formed some huge voracious animal, to Avhom 
she allotted the beasts of the forest for his food ? 
How can we otherwise account for the nume- 
rous fractures that every where mark these 
strata of bones ? May it not be inferred, too, 
that as the largest and swiftest quadrupeds were 
appointed for his food, he necessarily was en- 
dowed Avith great strength and activity ? That, 
as the immense volume of the creature would 
unfit him for coursing after his prey through 
thickets and woods, nature had furnished him 
with the power of taking a mighty leap ? That 
this power of springing to a great distance was 
requisite to the more effectual concealment of 
his bulky volume while lying in wait for his 
prey ? Is not the Author of Existence wise 
and just in all his works ? Would he confer 
appetites, and withhold the powers capable of 
obtaining their gratification ? 



42 

With the agility and ferocity of the tipper ; 
with a body of unequalled magnitude and 
strength ; this monster must have been the ter- 
ror of the forest, and of man! And — what 

monster ? It is true, carried away by an 

enthusiasm, inspired by the subject, I have not 
waited to tell you, that such a one did in fact 
exist. Filled with a strong conviction of his 
existence, I sought for evidence; I spared no 
labour ; I du2: all around, and at leniith drew 
from the reluctant earth the remains of a hude 
carnivorous animal, furnished with higli-coned 
teeth, armed with claws. In fine, '• hu^-e as 
the frowning precipice, cruel as the bloody 
panther, swift as the descending eagle, and ter- 
rible as the angel of night," must have been 
this tremendous animal, when cloth^^d with 
Eesh and animated with principles of life ! 

The ruins of a portion of his head weigh 
nearly 200lbs. From the enamel of the teeth, 
fire can be struck I and the skull must have 
been 12 inches thick, formins; a forehead 4 feet 



The scapula, or shoulder blade^ when seen 
in the earth, was large as a breakfast table ; the 



43 

decay was too great ; on moving it, it fell to 

pieces. 

The vertebra ^Yh\cll are seen, shew the spinal 
marrow to have been 5 inches in diameter I 
Is not this extraordinary? Not seen, would 
the tale be credible ? 

The huge leg and thigh bones, how mon- 
strous, how massive I What muscles must 

have filled the inflexions — the wide and hollow 
insinuosities ? And the fr^ements of ribs! 
how admirable their construction I Bent on 
the edge, they are eminently calculated for 
strengthening a frame ordained to subsist by the 
destruction of other animals, both active and 
powerful. 

But, above all, I beg your attention to the 
claw. It is sheathed and retractile ; denoting 
an animal of the lion kind. Justified by prin- 
ciples of anatomy I calculate, that, when ex- 
tended on its prey, it must have been nearly 4 
ft. long by 3 ft. wide, allowing that long and 
firm membranes interposed between the bones 
and toes. 



44 

There Is ii beaiitiriil mechanism in the 
whole of this. The toes were drawn together, 
or bended, when the paw Avas bent : this was 
owing to the shortness of the tendons which 
pass over the toes, and from the toes being set 
in the circumference of a circle, as our fin- 
gers are. Therefore, when the paw was bent, 
the tendons would consequently be much 
stretched ; and, since they are inserted into 
the toes, must of necessity have bent them 
when the foot was bent ; and when the paw or 
foot was extended, the flexors would again re- 
lax, and allow the toes to become expanded, — 
to seize its prey, rend, and annihilate it. 

From this rapid review of these majestic 
remains it must appear^ that the creature to xvhwi 
they belonged was nearly 60 feet long^ and 2 
feet high ! 

Beins: armed with claws, sheathed and re- 
tractile ; having the powers, from the forma- 
tion of his ribs, of extending and contracting 
his body to a great degree, in order to make 
more prodigious bounds ; and appearing to be 
endowed with the passions and appetites of the 



45 

lion ; I have ventured to distirigLiisli him iiudtir 
that genus, and have CviK^dhim the Megaloiiyx, 
after the Greek, Avhich signifies the great lion. 

However presumptuous this step may ap- 
pear, I found it essential to take it ; in order 
to avoid the vulgar error of calling it '' mam- 
moth," a term already bestowed on an animal 
of the elephantine species, as heretofore provecl, 
and of the herbivorous nature. Besides, in 
a place which abounded with bones, I found it 
absolutely necessary to have some system of 
classification. For, in fact, I discovered re- 
mains of no less than six species of incognita ; 
three of which I have not as yet defined. But 
would it be wise to blend them all together, 
and, to save the labour of investigation, to 
involve them all in the name of mammoth ? In 
my first memoir I gave my motives for afiixing 
this name to one particular animal, whose pro- 
perties I described ;-— and in this, I give the 
name of megalonyx to another, w hose capacities 
I shall further explain. In zoology, this 
name will, I imagine, class under felis, a ge- 
nus of quadrupeds belonging to the order of 
/era, the principal characters of which are 
these, — the fore teeth are ecjual, the molares. 



46 



or grinders, have three points ; the tongue is 
furnished with rough sharp prickles, pointing 
backwards ; and the claws are sheathed and 
retractile. This genus comprehends twenty- 
two species, including the megalonyx. 

It is said, that in warm countries quadru- 
peds are larger and stronger than in cold or 
temperate climates ; that they are likewise more 
fierce and hardy : all their natural qualities cor- 
responding with the ardour of the climate; that 
the lions nourished under the scorching sun 
of Africa, or the Indies, are strong, fierce, 
and terrible ; and that those of Mount Atlas, 
whose top is sometimes covered with snow, are 
neither so strong nor so ferocious as those of 
Belledulgired or Zaara, whose plains are co- 
vered with burning sands. We have now, how- 
ever, reason to doubt the justice of these ob- 
servations, and to conceive, that other causes 
concur to inspire courage and repress vigour, 
than the influence of heat and cold. Do we 
not know — are we not convinced — that an ani- 
mal of the lion s sensibilities, but far superior 
to him in magnitude, ferocity, and strength, 
was once the dread and scourge of all the 
western world ! And what has become of him ? 



47 

Satisfied of his once existing, this questioia 
becomes a profitable enquiry. 

All noxious quadrupeds hasten to banish- 
ment, apparent extinction, or rapid decline. 

The Romans brought many more lions 

out of Libya, for their public shews, than are 
now to be found in that country. It is like- 
wise remarked, that the lions in Turkey, Persia, 
and the Indies, are now much less numerous 
than formerly. As this formidable and cou- 
rageous animal makes a prey of most other 
animals, and is himself a prey to none, this 
diminution in the number of the species can 
be owing to nothing but the increase in the 
number of mankind: for it must be acknow- 
ledged, that the strength of the lion is not a 
match for the dexterity and address of a Negro 
or a Hottentot, who will often dare to attack 
him face to face, and this too with very slight 
weapons. The ingenuity of mankind aug- 
ments with their number ; that of other ani- 
mals continues always the same. All the nox- 
ious animals, therefore, are reduced to a small 
number, owing as well to the increase of man-^ 
kind, as to the increase of ingenuity, which 
has invented weapons that nothing can resist. 



48 

These reasons apply to the fall of the mega- 
loiiyx ; vv-'di this addition, that as he was so 
terrific and devastating a disturber, the human 
race miT^ht have made his extirpation a com- 
mon cause; or his numerous and powerful 
enemies of tli forests might have operated to 
this etlect. There is no question, but that the 
mammoth was his perp^^tual rival, and avowed 
adversary. Wherever they met, they fought; 
and wherever they fought, one or both fell. 
Their bones, to this day, are found mingled 
together on the same surface, or buried deep 
in the same hole. I hardly know an instance 
of their being found separately, and where 
they are so, they have most probably been 
dragged into such situations by creatures, who 
dreaded to approach them while alive. But 
how long the megalonyx has existed, or ceased 
to exist, in America, we shall perhaps ever 
remain in ignorance of. No judgment can be 
formed from the quantity of vegetable soil 
which has accumulated over his bones. Certain 
we are, that his species existed in great abun- 
dance, from the number of their remains. 
Perh^rps they were destroyed by some sudden 
and powerful cause, — probably one of those 
changes, or sudden eruptions of the sea, which 



49 

have left their traces in every part of the globe; 
and which are in amazino- abundance on the 
very spot where these bones are found. Xliey 
consist of petrefactions of sea productions, 
shells, corals, 8cc. It is probable, too, that 
whenever, and by whatever means, the extir- 
pation of this tremendous race of animals was 
effected, the same cause operated in the de- 
struction of all those inhabitants, from whom 
we might have received some satisfactory ac- 
count of them. 

Whether the race is extinct, or whether, 
as the Indians allege, it still exists beyond the 
lakes, remains, then, undecided. 1 am reluc- 
tant to think that so grand a mouument of All- 
creative Power would be allowed to be effec- 
tually and entirely destroyed I And yet a con- 
clusion may be drawn in favour of its annihila- 
tion. The scriptures tell us, that '' in the be- 
ginning, to man was given the dominion over 
the fish of the sea, over the fowls of the air, 
and over every living thing that moved upon 
the earth. " Could the present race of man 
govern the Megalonyx, supposing he v . isted 
in the abundance we are authorised to conceive 
he did ? Certainly not. Therefore, to fulfil an 



50 

ordinance in favour of mankind, the race might 
have been destroyed. 

Or, perhaps there has been in this tyrannic 
animal's day a race of people who had as com- 
plete a dominion over that astonishing being, 
as the present race have over the animals of the 
present time ! If so, what ideas can we have 
of them ? And " how have the mighty fallen I" 
Here language fails; and man, poor short- 
sicrhted man, is lost in clouds of amazement 
and uncertainty : while, like the poet, we must 

Once more search, undismay'd, the dark profound, 
Where Nature works in secret ; view the beds 
Of mineral treasure, and the eternal vault 
That bounds the hoary ocean ; trace the forms 
Of atoms, moving with incessant change, 
Their elemental round ; behold the seeds 
Of being and the energy of life, 
Kindling the mass with ever-active flame : 
Then to the secrets of the working mind 
Attentive turn ; from dim oblivion call 
Her fleet, ideal, band ; and bid them ' go 
Break thro' Time's barrier, and o'ertake the hour 
That saw the heav'ns created ; then declare 
If ought were ever found in those external scenes 
To move thy wonder now 1 ' For what are all 
The forms which brute, unconscious matter wears. 
Greatness of bulk, or symmetry of parts ! 



51 

I did not wish to break the train of my 
©wn arguments, by introducing the opinions of 
those, whom 1 know to be adverse to mine. 
A love of truth, however, and a desire to give 
all the information within my means, lead mc 
to notice those opinions. 

Bishop Maddison, a gentleman of research 
and distinguished information, affirms, that 
the incognitum with the studded grinders is an 
animal of the herbivorous order. Permit me 
to give his own reasonings. 

" Among rude nations, ignorance and cre- 
dulity have eagerly embraced and perpetuated 
extravagant tales, respecting the mammoth. 
The Siberians assert, that it lives under ground ; 
and the North-west Indians have hurled ao;ainst 
it the thunder-bolts of the Great Spirit, so as 
to make the monster spring over the Wabash, 
the Illinois, and the Great Lake, where he is 
now confined I In the scientific world, two 
dissimilar principles, scepticism, and the bold 
spirit of conjecture and system, have produced 
mistakes, perhaps no less extraordinary. At 
first, the remains alluded to were, by some na- 
turalists, attributed to the elephant, whilst 

£2 



52 

others advocated a just claim of the hippopo- 
tamus to the. same. When, in process of time, 
the light, thrown on the suhject by compara- 
tive anatomy, determined that they must have 
belonged to a non-descript animal, distinct 
from either, — a doubtful point still existed, 
and invited the attention of the inquisitive. — 
" Was that animal carnivorous or herbivorous?" 
Each side of the question long boasted illus- 
trious supporters. Dr. Hunter declared the 
unknown animal, carnivorous. His opinion 
became mostly prevalent. By some, however, 
who were unwilling entirely to abandon a fa- 
vourite idea, it was contended, that he was an 
animal of the mixed kind ; that is, capable, like 
man, like the monkey, the hog, 8cc. of feeding 
both upon flesh and upon vegetable substances. 
But most adopted Hunter's idea, without any 
modification, and declared the animal positively 
and exclusively carnivorous. After the deci- 
sion of this point, curiosity and investigation 
were excited by another topic of enquiry. 
This was,, to ascertain the element on which 
he lived in general. Some considered it a ter- 
restrial animal ; others, from certain indications 
in its structure, pronounced it amphibious^ and 
consigned to it shell-fish, as its favourite food," 



53 



The fact contained in the followino- com- 
munlcation strongly, we might say victoriously, 

militates against the carnivorous doctrine. 

And facts, says Bishop Maddison, summon the 
discordant opinions of philosophers before an 
unerring tribunal, from which there can be no 
appeal : — 

" The question, whether the incognitum 
was a carnivorous or an herbivorous animal, 
has long divided natui-alists : ingenuity, sup- 
ported by analogy, afforded specious argu- 
ments for either opinion. One fact, which the 
bosom of nature had concealed, but which hu- 
man industry has brought to light, has re- 
moved every doubt, in digging a well, in a 
place which afforded indications of marine salt, 
a passage was made through the contents of 
the stomacli of a vast animal I The novelty of 
the substances, thus found, excited attention. 
They were carefully examined, and seemed to 
be half masticated reeds, and twigs of trees, 
with grass ; Avhilst the bones of the beast, 
which were dug up at the same time, and 
which lay contiguous to these substances, evin- 
ced, that they had been the contents of the 
animal. These contents are in a state of high 



54 



preservation; have been seen by hundreds; 
and were found, together with the bones, rest- 
ing on a limestone rock, about 5i feet below 
the ground, in the county of Wythe, in Vir- 
ginia. A part of the contents, with the whole 
skeleton, are to be forwarded to William and 
Mary College." 

There is a rational scepticism, justly recom- 
mended by the great Bacon to the lovers of 
knowledge. Philosophical doubt ought to be 
carried into every department of science. Re- 
peated experiments, accumulated facts, long 
and attentive observations, can alone imprint 
on our theories the sacred seal of truth, and 
establish our opinions on a permanent basis. 
And surely you will agree with me, that, ac- 
cording to these remarks, finding a few crushed 
vegetable substances blended with bones of an 
animal, is not a suflicient criterion for the dis- 
covery of his properties and affections. Besides, 
a variety of circumstances might have concurred 
to place the supposed contents of the stomach 
in the situation they were found. An expiring 
animal of ferocity and force might have torn 
and masticated every substance within his reach; 
— or the matter collected by Bishop Maddison 



55 



niifflit have been the contents of the stomach of 
an herbivorous animal, the carcase of which 
might have hiin under the body of the carni- 
vorous creature with whom it fought, and with 
whom it fell. For there is no doubt, but that 
a fixed and perpetual enmity reigned between 
the mammoth and the megalonyx. Their re- 
mains evince this ; they are constantly found 
together; and as we are sufficiently convinced 
that their pursuits and sensibilities differed, 
we must ascribe this present union to their for- 
mer hatred and animosity. I am asked, how- 
it happens, that where the bones of both ani- 
mals have been embedded together, those of 
the megalonyx alone principally are found, 
while those of the mammoth are scarcely dis- 
cernible ? The answer is plain. The bones of 
all herbivorous animals are, from their nature, 
subject to decay infinitely sooner than the bones 
of carnivorous creatures, w liich are more dura- 
ble and capable of resistance. Hence, where 
the mammoth and megalonyx expire together, 
the bones of the latter may be found entire, 
and none of the former but its tusks ; — which 
being made of ivory, bid equal defiance to the 
attacks of time. 



56 



Therefore, on the whole, we cannot agree 
to consider an animal, endowed with carnivo- 
rous grinders, to be herbivorous^ on the mere 
ground, that mashed vegetable substances were 
found in the vicinity of his bones 1 It would 
be catching at straws, to support a theory, to 
me entirely inadmissible. 1 could prefer 
meeting the doctrine of those who suppose 
the animals of a mixed nature ; though I have 
no intention to abandon my own, that he is 
carnivorous, and unmixed. It is true, not- 
withstanding, that the lower jaw is furnished 
with but four teeth, two on each side ; and 
being unassociated either with incisor es or canine^ 
it mig-ht be inferred, that his nature was not 
wholly carnivorous, but mixed ; — and that a 
being, whose existence would require such an 
immoderate quantity of animal food, might, 
under circumstances of necessity, be indued 
with the faculty of subsisting on vegetable 
substances. As the idea is not unreasonable, 
I shall not oppose it, though I am far from 
beino- of the belief myself, 

1 shall also be accused of placing an animal 
of such extreme volume under the 2;enus of 



57 



the lion 5 whose bulk is comparatively small. 
But is not the diminutive domestic cat of the 
lion species ? May not the lion's race soar as 
much above, as this degenerate creature sinks 
beneath, him ? Or why is it, that the human 
mind will admit of mean and contemptible asso- 
ciations, and reject those that are sublime and 
grand ? Are there not a mini, and a Avhale ; 
a humming bird, and a cassawary ; a mouse, 
and a mammoth ; a dwarf, and a giant ? Yes. 
On the same principle, then, we admit a cat, 
and a megalonyx. It is not the size which 
determines the genus, but the qualities, pur- 
suits, and affections. The size varies more 
considerably in the lion, than in any other 
species. — M. de la Landemagon assures lis, 
that he has seen a tiger, in the East Indies, 15 
feet long, including, undoubtedly, the length 
of the tail, which, supposing it to be four feet, 
makes the body of the tiger eleven feet in 
length I 

A skeleton, preserved in the cabinet of a 
French King, indicates, that the animal was 
7 feet long, from the point of the muzzle to 
the origin of the tail ; and it must be consider- 
ed, that he was caught young, and lived in 
confinement all his days. 



5S 

There is in some parts of India a popular 
notion, that the rhinoceros and the tiger were 
in friendship, because they are found near each 
other. In America the bones of the rhino- 
ceros and megalonyx are in the same vicinity : 
but I do not attribute this to any former friend- 
ship that existed between them. The truth is, 
the rhinoceros loves to wallow in the mire, and, 
on that account, frequents salines and the banks 
of rivers : the megalonvx, to quench his thirst, 
or find his prey, remained contiguous to the 
same places. 

Nor do I stand alone in the opinion, that 
animals of the lion race have inhabited Ame- 
rica ; and though M. Buffon even denies the 
panther to belong to that country, Mr. Pennant 
thinks, that the same, or a variety at least, in- 
habits it. The figure of the species described 
by Faber, under the name of tigris Mextcana, 
agrees exactly v/ith that of the panther, as does 
also the description in general. M. Conda- 
mini, and Le Pere Cattano, speak of the tigers 
of America as equal and even superior in size 
to those of Africa, and the colour as bright 
as gold ; and Ulloa describes them as big as a 
horse ! Notwithstanding the venders of fur« 



59 

cannot be depended upon, as to the countries 
their goods come from, yet the general opinion 
of the whole trade, that these skins were the 
produce of Spanish America, is a further proof 
of their being common to both continents. 

From the remains, then, befyj;e us ; from 
all the foregoing remarks ; and, above all, from 
the conviction that the megalonyx is of the 
lion kind, let us form to ourselves some idea 
of his character. 

His length 60 ft. his height 25 ; his figure 
magnificent; his looks determined; his gait 
stately; his voice tremendous I In a word, 
his body must have been the best model of 
deadly strength, joined to the greatest agility. 
And, from the force expressed by the visible 
seat of his muscles, his bounds must have been 
prodigious, enabling him to fall upon his prey, 
to seize it with his teeth ; tear it with his claws^ 
and devour it. Accustomed to measure his 
strength with that of all other animals he used 
to encounter, the habit of coliquering must 
have rendered him haughty and intrepid! 

Having, perhaps, never experienced the 



60 



strength of man, or the power of his arms, in- 
stead of discovei m§ any signs of fear, he would 
disdain and set an army at defiance ! Wounds 
might irritate, but they could not terrify him; 
and after a violent and obstinate engagement, 
should he find himself weakened, he would 
retreat fighting, always keeping his face to the 
enemy, looking proud, great, and ferocious. 



THE END. 



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